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The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by [[Hans von Speyer]] as addenda to certain sections of the Jud Lew gloss in his 1491 manuscript [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|M.I.29]] (Salzburg).<ref>[[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M.I.29]] is signed and internally dated on [[page:MS M.I.29 158r.jpg|folio 158r]].</ref> A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.
 
The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by [[Hans von Speyer]] as addenda to certain sections of the Jud Lew gloss in his 1491 manuscript [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|M.I.29]] (Salzburg).<ref>[[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M.I.29]] is signed and internally dated on [[page:MS M.I.29 158r.jpg|folio 158r]].</ref> A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.
  
The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing substantial portions of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,<ref name="Hoffman"/> and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.
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The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,<ref name="Hoffman"/> and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.
  
 
The 1508<ref>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] is internally dated on [[page:MS E.1939.65.341 022r.jpg|folio 22r]].</ref> Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.
 
The 1508<ref>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] is internally dated on [[page:MS E.1939.65.341 022r.jpg|folio 22r]].</ref> Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.
  
The third version from this period is another fragment, published by Freifechter [[Andre Paurñfeyndt]] in 1516 as part of his treatise ''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'' ("Foundation of the Chivalric Art of Swordplay")<ref>''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'' is internally dated on [[page:E.1939.65.357 K4r.jpg|page K4r]].</ref> and containing only the material on fencing from low guards; in characteristic fashion, Paurñfeyndt does not attribute this material to Ringeck. The section is illustrated by the same crude woodblock art as the rest of his book, though their connection to Ringeck's original text is doubtful. (Paurñfeyndt's text would be reprinted by [[Christian Egenolff]] four times between 1531 and 1558,<ref>The first three printings of ''Der Altenn Fechter anfengliche Kunst'' are undated, but the first edition must have been produced between 1531, when Egenolff set up his shop in Frankfurt-am-Main, and Hans Weiditz' death in 1537; the second and third editions were released some time before Egenolff's own death in 1555. The only dated edition was published by Egenolff's heirs in 1558 (see [[page:DAFaK 1558 mIIIv.jpg|page XLVIIv]]).</ref> transcribed by [[Lienhart Sollinger]] into the [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. I.6.2º.2]] in 1564,<ref>The material in [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. I.6.2º.2]] based on Paurñfeyndt is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.2 71r.jpg|folio 71r]]</ref> and translated to Walloon and printed by [[Willem Vorsterman]] in 1538.<ref>''La noble science des ioueurs d'espee'' is internally dated on [[page:Hn 236 35v.jpg|page 35v]].</ref>)
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The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of [[Albrecht Dürer]]; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian I to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.<ref name="Dornhoffer">[[Friedrich Dörnhöffer]]. ''[http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/fencing/albrecht.pdf Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch].'' Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.</ref> This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).
  
The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, [[Paulus Hector Mair]] produced the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master [[Antonius Rast]].<ref>The origin of [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] is detailed on [[page:Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 IIr.jpg|folio IIr]].</ref> Included in this manuscript was a version of the pseudo-Danzig long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text (speculatively, perhaps the rest of Rast's copy of Ringeck was not among the papers Mair purchased, so he attempted to fill the gap using the copy of pseudo-Danzig that he already possessed).
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The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, [[Paulus Hector Mair]] produced the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master [[Antonius Rast]].<ref>The origin of [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] is detailed on [[page:Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 IIr.jpg|folio IIr]].</ref> Included in this manuscript was a version of [[Nicolaüs]]' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.
  
The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter [[Joachim Meÿer]] until his death in 1571.<ref>The only date, 1570, is given on [[page:MS Var.82 123r.png|folio 123]] (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See [[Joachim Meyer]]. ''The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570.'' Trans. [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.</ref> It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke, and also omits the entire section on fencing from the low guards; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).
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The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter [[Joachim Meÿer]] until his death in 1571.<ref>The only date, 1570, is given on [[page:MS Var.82 123r.png|folio 123]] (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See [[Joachim Meyer]]. ''The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570.'' Trans. [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.</ref> It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).
  
 
All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).
 
All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).
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Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.
 
Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.
  
(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of [[Hans Medel|Hans Medel von Salzburg]],<ref>Medel's section of the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 21r.jpg|folio 21r]].</ref> which was acquired by Mair and bound into the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] after 1566.<ref>The record of the [[Marxbrüder]] in the manuscript ends on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 20r.jpg|folio 20r]] with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.</ref> Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including [[Nicolaüs]] and [[Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt]], but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)
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(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of [[Hans Medel|Hans Medel von Salzburg]],<ref>Medel's section of the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 21r.jpg|folio 21r]].</ref> which was acquired by Mair and bound into the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] after 1566.<ref>The record of the [[Marxbrüder]] in the manuscript ends on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 20r.jpg|folio 20r]] with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.</ref> Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and [[Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt]], but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
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{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 082r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
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{{master end}}
 
 
Apart from the glosses, a brief text covering long sword fencing from a low guard called [[iron gate]] or [[side guard]] is also typically attributed to Ringeck. This is less certain, since this text also appears in [[Andre Paurñfeyndt]]'s 1516 work ''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'', which was published within a decade of the creation of both of the extant manuscript copies. As Paurñfeyndt includes the entire section and no other material associated with Ringeck, it is entirely possible that Paurñfeyndt was the original author of this text, or that both Paurñfeyndt and the scribes of the Dresden and Glasgow manuscripts were copying from an unknown third source.
 
 
{{master begin
 
| title = Additional Long Sword Teachings
 
| width = 174em
 
}}
 
{| class="floated master" style="clear:right;"
 
|-
 
! id="thin" | <p>Images</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Christian Trosclair]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]] (1508){{edit index|Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]] (ca. 1570){{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'' (1516)<br/> by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
 
|-
 
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| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here note how one shall fence with the long sword from the guard which is called the iron-gate [or] side-guard,<ref>D. ''nebenhůtten'': "side-guard"; G. '' Eysenen pfort'', "iron-gate"; P. uses both interchangeably in this section.</ref> and how one shall execute the sweeps<ref>''streichn''.</ref> from it. For there are many good plays which come from this, which many masters of the sword know nothing to speak about them.}}<ref>D. "Here note to fence from the side-guards, that is, also the sweeps"; P. "Play in the sweeping-upon".</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049r.png|1|lbl=49r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|1|lbl=22v}}
 
|
 
| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[D4r]</small> '''STVCK ym auftreichñ'''</p>
 
 
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|
 
| <p>[2] Know that [there] is good fencing from the sweeps, although<ref>''wiewohl''.</ref> they are not named in the Recital. Yet the plays from the Recital arise when one fences from them. And one shall execute the sweeps from the left side, because when they are from the right they are not as certain as from the left.<ref>G. "Item. Know that one shall execute the sweeps from the iron-gate from the left side because it is not as certain from the right."</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
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| [[File:Paurñfeyndt 6.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[3] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p">Word omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> Execute the first play thusly}}:<ref name="clause-dp">Clause omitted from the Dresden and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> when you lay in the side-guard to your left side and someone cleaves-in to you downward from above,<ref>P. "from his right shoulder".</ref> so firmly sweep onto his sword with the short edge. If he holds<ref>''wiederhalten'': lit. "hold against"; "to withstand, resist".</ref> strongly against [it] and is not too high with the hands, double-in<ref>''einduplieren''.</ref> with the short edge (between him and his sword) on the left side to his neck.<ref name="ear-p">P. "ear".</ref></p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049v.png|1|lbl=49v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wan du leist yn der nebñ huet auf deiner linckñ seitñ&nbsp;/ vud ainer haut auf dich ain oberhau von seiner rechten axel so streich von vndñ auf vast yn sein schwert mit der kurczñ scneid&nbsp;/ helt er starck wider vñ ist nit hoch mit den hendñ&nbsp;/ so duplier czwischñ dem man vñ seinem schwert ein&nbsp;/ mit der kurczen schneid czu seinem lincken or</p>
 
 
|-
 
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| <p>[4] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When one sweeps}}-on to the sword {{red|as before}},<ref>"As before" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> if he holds strongly against, so strike-around quickly<ref>"-Around quickly" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> with the thwart-cut to his left side, and double-in again<ref name="word-g"/> to his right side, between the man and the<ref>"The man and the sword" replaced by "his" in ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> sword, with the long edge on his<ref name="the-g"/> neck.<ref name="ear-p"/></p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>Wan du auff streichst an sein schwert helt er starck wider&nbsp;/ so sclach mit der twer seine lin/cken seittñ&nbsp;/ vnd duplier aber czwischñ seinem schwert vñ sclach czu seinem rechtñ or mit der langen schneidt</p>
 
 
|-
 
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| <p>[5] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you sweep underneath<ref name="word-d"/> onto his sword}} as before, and<ref name="word-dg"/> if he is then soft upon the sword and low with the hands,<ref>"And low with the hands" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> so cleave-in straight<ref>"-In straight" omitted from the Dresden and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> above with the long edge to the opening at hand.<ref>"At hand" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>Wen du vndñ auf streichst an sein schwert vnd ist er waich am schwert vñ nider mit den hendñ so hav ym mit der langñ schneid obñ nach der pleß</p>
 
 
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| <p>[6] {{red|Item. When you sweep onto his sword}},<ref name="clause-d"/> or<ref name="word-g"/> if he falls with the sword strongly onto yours, so drive quickly above his sword with the pommel, and remain thereupon with the hands<ref name="clause-g"/> and allow your<ref name="the-d"/> point backwards to your left side,<ref>"To your left side" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> and snap-off from the sword and strike<ref>"Off from the sword and strike" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> with the short side to the head.<ref>D. ''haüpt'', G. ''kopf''.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>[7] {{red|Item. When you sweep}} onto his sword, if he then<ref name="word-d"/> drives high up and winds, so strike him in the right side with outstretched arms, and with that step to the back.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050r.png|1|lbl=50r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>[8] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you sweep onto his sword}}, if he drives high up and winds, so strengthen with the long edge. If he then strikes-around again<ref name="word-dg"/> with the thwart, so strike him into the left side with a step away.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}
 
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| <p>Wan du ym streichst an das schwert fert er hoch auf vnd windt&nbsp;/ so steck mit der langen schneidt&nbsp;/ schlecht er aber mit der twer&nbsp;/ so schlach yn indie linck seitten mit ainem ab trit</p>
 
 
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| <p>[9] {{red|Item}}.<ref name="word-p"/> When you lay in the side-guard or<ref>"You lay… guard, or" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> {{red|you execute the sweeps to the man}}, and if he then holds his sword athwart before him and is high with the arms and wishes to fall onto your sword, so sweep onto his sword below and slash him on the arm, or jab<ref>''stoß''; this could either be to stab him or hit him.</ref> him under his sword<ref>"Him under his sword" omitted from the Dresden and Glasgow.</ref> on the<ref name="word-p"/> chest.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|1|lbl=50v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>Wan du ligst in der neben huet&nbsp;/ oder treibst die streichñ czu dem man&nbsp;/ helt er dan sein sch/wert twerchs vor ym&nbsp;/ vñ wil dir auf dein schwert vallñ&nbsp;/ vnd ist er hoch mit den armen&nbsp;/ so streich ym vnden an das schwert&nbsp;/ vnd stoß yn vnder seinem schwert in prust</p>
 
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Paurñfeyndt 5.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[10] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-dp">Word omitted from the Dresden and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> If he is low with the hands}} and will fall<ref>P. ''farñ'': "drive".</ref> upon you, so sweep-through to the other side and jab him in the chest. So have [you] changed-through.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[E1r]</small> IST er nider mit den henden&nbsp;/ vnd wil auff farñ&nbsp;/ so streich durch&nbsp;/ vnd stoß yn czv der prust auf die ander seittñ daß ist durch gewechselt</p>
 
 
|-
 
| <p>[11] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you sweep-through}}, so fall on his sword with the long edge and wind to your left side (such that your thumb comes under), and drive with the long edge upon the right side of<ref>"Side of" omitted from the Dresden and Glasgow.</ref> his neck with the strong, and spring with the right foot behind his left<ref>"Behind his neck" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> and move him with the sword<ref>Marginalia: The word ''schrit'' ("a step") appears over the word "sword" in the Dresden, and ''schret'' ("a step or make a step") appears under.</ref> thereover.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>Wandu durch streichst&nbsp;/ so fall ym mit der langñ schneidt auf sein schwerdt&nbsp;/ vñ windt auf dein lincke seittñ das dein daum vnden kumpt&nbsp;/ vnd var ym mit der langen schneidt mit der sterck an sein rechte seittñ deß halß&nbsp;/ vnd spring mit dem rechtñ fuß vnd ruck yn mit deim scwerdt dar vber</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[12] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you change-through from the sweeps}} and arrive on the other side on top<ref>''obenauf''.</ref> of his sword, you may execute the play just as well as before to the other<ref>D. "opposite".</ref> side, with fleshwounds and with all things as before (to all sides).<ref>"As before (to all sides)" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051r.png|1|lbl=51r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wan du auß dem streichñ durch wechselst&nbsp;/ vñ kumbst zv der anderñ seittñ obñ auff sein schwerdt&nbsp;/ so magstu die stuck gleich als wol treibñ als vor mit czeckrurñ&nbsp;/ vñ mit allñ din/gñ alß vor auff allñ seitñ</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[13] {{red|b=1|Note an onset from the setting-aside}}</p>
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-gp">Word omitted from the Glasgow and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> When you fence with someone and when you come closing in to him}}, so approach in the plow, and drive it swiftly with winding from one side to the other and such that your point always<ref name="word-dg"/> stands still in front,<ref>"In front" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and from that you may execute the parries;<ref>Alternately: "parrying(s)".</ref> this is the “nearing”<ref name="nearing">I.e. closing-in. It is not "the ''nach''" (after) because ''nach'' is neuter and would be ''das nach''. G. also writes ''die neche''. ''næhe'' could also be "the boat".</ref> and into that you may strengthen with the long edge, and from that execute all the afore-named plays. You may also set-aside cuts and thrusts, and break them simply with winding, and seek the openings with the point.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|1|lbl=51v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Fechtñ auß dem abseczen'''</p>
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ vnd nahendt czu ym kumst&nbsp;/ so kum in den phflug&nbsp;/ vnd treib den behendlich mit wendñ von ainer seitñ czu der andrñ&nbsp;/ vnd daß dein ort alweg vor dir pleib&nbsp;/ auß dem magstu treibñ daß verseczñ&nbsp;/ daß ist die nech&nbsp;/ vnd yn dem magstu sterckñ mit der langen schneidt&nbsp;/ vnd dar auß treiben alle vor geende stuch&nbsp;/ auch magstu hew vnd stich abseczñ vnd die flechlichñ prechñ&nbsp;/ vnd mit dem ort die pleß suchen</p>
 
 
|-
 
| [[File:Paurñfeyndt 14.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[14] {{red|b=1|The barrier-guard,<ref>P. "side-guard".</ref> make it thusly:}}</p>
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you fence with someone and come closing into him}}, so stand with the left foot forward and lay the sword with the point upon the ground to your right side and<ref name="word-p"/> such that the long edge is above; and from the left side, the short edge below<ref name="word-g"/> and the right<ref name="word-d"/> foot stands<ref name="word-g"/> forward.<ref>"And from… stands forward" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> This goes to both sides.<ref name="sentence-dg">Sentence omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|1|lbl=23v}}
 
|
 
| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[E2r]</small> '''Nebñ Hut'''</p>
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ vñ nahendt czu ym kumst&nbsp;/ so ste mit dem linckñ fuß vor vnd leg das schwerdt mit dem ort auf die erdt czu deiner rechtñ seittñ/das die lang schneid obñ sey daß get czu paiden seittñ</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[15] {{red|b=1|This play executes from the barrier-guard<ref>P. "side-guard".</ref> thusly:}}</p>
 
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-p"/> If one cuts above to you or from under up (or wherever it otherwise is),<ref name="clause-dg">Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> so cleave-in to him crooked into the opening with a step-out.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Stuck aus der Nebñ hut'''</p>
 
 
<p>Haut dir ainer obñ czu&nbsp;/ oder sunst wo eß sey&nbsp;/ so haw du ym krump ein zu der pleß mit ainẽ auß trit</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[16] Item. Or cut him crooked to the flats and as soon as it sparks, seek the “nearing”<ref name="nearing"/> with the short edge.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052r.png|1|lbl=52r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[17] Item.<ref name="word-p"/> Or execute the inverter into his face with the point, and when he binds-on to you, so strengthen with the long edge and [you] may execute any plays which are afore named in the striking.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Treib den verkerer ein mit dem ort czu seinem gsicht&nbsp;/ vnd wan er anpindt&nbsp;/ so sterk mit der langñ schneidt&nbsp;/ vnd magst alle stuck treiben die vorgeendt seindt in dem streichñ</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|This is called the little-wheel}}</p>
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you fence with another, so stretch your arm from you long}} and such that your thumb remains upon the sword above, and wind the sword<ref name="word-g"/> around with the point in front of you, just like a little-wheel; with that you may execute<ref name="clause-dg"/> from below swiftly to your left side and with that<ref>"With that" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> go to the man, and from that you may change-through or bind-on to whichever side you wish, and when you have bound-upon, you may execute whatever play you wish that you think best,<ref>P. "convenient".</ref> as before.<ref name="clause-g"/><ref>P. "then escape afterwards".</ref></p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052v.png|1|lbl=52v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Auß legung deß Racz'''</p>
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ so streck dein arm͂ lang von dir&nbsp;/ vñ daß dein daum obñ pleib auff dem schwerdt&nbsp;/ vñ wendt daß schwerdt von dir mit dem ort&nbsp;/ darmit du auftreiben magst&nbsp;/ von vndñ auff deiner linckñ seittñ behendt&nbsp;/ vñ gee czu dem man&nbsp;/ dar auß magstu auff wel/che seitten du wildt durchwechslñ&nbsp;/ oder waß stuck dir fuglich ist&nbsp;/ dẽ pfortail nach</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[19] {{red|b=1|Also break the thwart}}</p>
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you stand in the<ref name="word-d"/> guard from-the-roof and one}} cuts {{red|you}} with the thwart, simultaneously cleave-in to him with the wrath-cut, and bind on<ref>"Bind on" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> his sword with strength, and seek the openings with the point;<ref name="clause-p">Clause omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> and if he then<ref name="word-p"/> wishes to strike-around it to the other side<ref>"To the other side" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> with the thwart, so come before with the thwart under his sword to his neck, or slice him with the long edge into the arm when he strikes-around.<ref>P. "So thwart in before to his neck".</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|1|lbl=24r|p=1}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Twer Hew prechñ'''</p>
 
 
<p>Wan du stest in der hut vom tag&nbsp;/ vñ ainer auf dich haut mit der twer&nbsp;/ so haw den zorñhaw gleich mit ym ein vnd pindt ym starck mitten auff sein schwerdt vñ wil er vmschlahñ mit der twer&nbsp;/ so twer ym vorñ czu seinẽ halß&nbsp;/ auch magstu alle stuck treibñ als in dem streichñ</p>
 
 
|-
 
| [[File:Paurñfeyndt 15.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[20] {{red|b=1|A break against the break}}</p>
 
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-dg"/> {{red|Note}},<ref name="word-d"/> when you thwart, and one wishes to also come before ahead with the thwart under your sword on the neck, so fall-down<ref name="word-gp"/> in-the-moment<ref name="word-d"/> with the long edge strongly onto his sword, thus is it broken. And<ref name="word-d"/> take the nearest opening which may appear to you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053r.png|1|lbl=53r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[E3r]</small> '''Ain Anders'''</p>
 
 
<p>MERCK wan du twerst vnd dir ainer auch mit der twer wil uorñ vor kumen vnder dein schwerdt an den halß&nbsp;/ so vall ym indes mit der langñ schneidt starck auff sein schwerdt&nbsp;/ so ist es geprochen&nbsp;/ vnd nym die nechst pleß an dye dir werden mag</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|Against the slice below into the arms<ref>P. "From the wrath-cut".</ref>}}</p>
 
 
<p>{{red|Item}}.<ref name="word-p"/> When you fence someone and if [you]<ref>"Fence someone and if [you]" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> cleave-in to him with the wrath-cut (or otherwise)<ref>"With the wrath-cut or otherwise" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> from above downward,<ref name="word-dg"/> and he parries it and drives high with the hilt,<ref>P. "arms".</ref> and you as well,<ref name="clause-p"/> and [you] both<ref name="word-dg"/> run-in with each other, so take the under-slice; and if he is then so prudent and wishes to take<ref>D., G. "will take".</ref> the under-slice to you, under your hands into the arms, follow-after underneath his sword with the long edge and press down; thus you have broken it, and seek the openings.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053v.png|1|lbl=53v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Vom zorn haw'''</p>
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ vnd haust ym ein mit dem zorñhaw&nbsp;/ oder sunst von oben nider&nbsp;/ vud er dir das verseczt&nbsp;/ vnd fert hoch auff mit den armen&nbsp;/ vnd lauft paidt einander ein&nbsp;/ vñ ist er dan so fursichtig vñ will dir dein schnidt nemen vnder den hendñ in die arm͂&nbsp;/ so volg seinem schwerdt nach vndrsich mit der langñ schneidt vñ truck nider&nbsp;/ so hastus prochñ</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[22] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> But when you come high with the arms, and if he also goes}} thusly and again runs-in, and if he will then jab with the pommel [either] through the arms, under your hands, under the eyes, or on the chest, then drive below with the pommel strongly with the arms, and move into him<ref>Sic, lit. "you".</ref> and strike him with your sword upon his head;<ref>"And move… his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> thus you have broken it.<ref name="clause-p"/></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wan du aber hoch mit den armen kumst&nbsp;/ vnd ainer auch also&nbsp;/  vnd laufft dir ein vñ wolt er dich den mit dem knopf durch dein arm͂ vnder deinen lendñ&nbsp;/ vnder die augñ&nbsp;/ oder in die prust stossñ&nbsp;/ so var vndersich mit dem knopf starck mit den armen&nbsp;/ vud ruck an dich&nbsp;/ vnd schlach yn mit deim schwerdt auff sein kopf</p>
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[23] {{red|Item. When you have bound-upon with someone and if he}} changes-through with the pommel and falls with the half-sword, this breaks simply with the over-slice; and in the slice,<ref name="clause-g"/> you may fall into the half sword and set-upon him.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 054r.png|1|lbl=54r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
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  | source title= [[Index:Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)]]
 
  | source title= [[Index:Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)]]
 
  | license    = copyrighted
 
  | license    = copyrighted
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey'']]
 
| authors    = [[Michael Chidester]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= Wiktenauer
 
| license    = noncommercial
 
 
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Revision as of 20:07, 19 May 2020

Sigmund ain Ringeck
Period 15th century
Occupation Fencing master
Nationality German
Patron Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
Movement Fellowship of Liechtenauer
Influences Johannes Liechtenauer
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s) Hypothetical
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Tobler, 2001
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Sigmund ain Ringeck (Sigmund ain Ringeck, Sigmund Amring, Sigmund Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a 15th century German fencing master. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by Hans Medel) is uncertain, the suffix "ein Ringeck" may indicate that he came from the Rhineland region of south-eastern Germany. He is named in the text as Schirmaister to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify Schirrmeister, a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially Schirmmeister, a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.[1] Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer—his name was included by Paulus Kal in his roll of members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer in ca. 1470.[2]

The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of Johannes Liechtenauer further narrows the list down to just two. If the MS 3227a is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was Albrecht I, who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of H. Beringer) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been Albrecht III, who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.[3] Albrecht IV claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht IV lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.

Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the MS Dresd.C.487. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on unarmored long sword fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century[4] (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.

Stemma

While only one treatise bears Ringeck's name, a gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on the long sword, he is often considered to be the author of the glosses of the short sword and mounted verses as well. The latter are associated with Ringeck largely due to the previously mentioned misattribution of the entire MS Dresd.C.487 (Dresden), but this is not an entirely unreasonable attribution to make considering the long sword is always accompanied by one or both of the others. All three seem to be based on the gloss of the anonymous author known as "pseudo-Peter von Danzig", which is attested from the 1450s; it is also possible that Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig were the same person, and the gloss attributed to Ringeck is simply the only branch of the larger stemma that retained its author's name.

Compared to the pseudo-Danzig gloss, Ringeck's descriptions are often slightly shorter and contain fewer variations; Ringeck does, however, include a number of unique plays not discussed in the other. Unlike the 15th century versions of pseudo-Danzig, Ringeck's long sword gloss was probably extensively illustrated: both the MS E.1939.65.341 (Glasgow) and MS Var.82 (Rostock) frequently refer readers to these illustrations, and it appears that source for the Dresden did as well, though the scribe attempted to remove all such references as he copied it (one remains intact,[5] one merely dropped the word "pictured",[6] and one was inexplicably replaced by the word "gloss"[7]).

Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck

The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by Hans von Speyer as addenda to certain sections of the Jud Lew gloss in his 1491 manuscript M.I.29 (Salzburg).[8] A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.

The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,[4] and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.

The 1508[9] Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.

The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of Albrecht Dürer; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian I to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.[10] This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).

The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, Paulus Hector Mair produced the Reichstadt Nr. 82 (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master Antonius Rast.[11] Included in this manuscript was a version of Nicolaüs' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.

The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter Joachim Meÿer until his death in 1571.[12] It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).

All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).

Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[13] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[14] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt, but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)

Treatise

Additional Resources

  • Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-58160-410-8
  • Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Arts of Combat: Sword-and-Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-499-3
  • Tobler, Christian Henry. Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship. Highland Village, TX: Chivalry Bookshelf, 2001. ISBN 1-891448-07-2
  • Wierschin, Martin. Meister Johann Liechtenauers Kunst des Fechtens. München: Beck, 1965.
  • Żabiński, Grzegorz. The Longsword Teachings of Master Liechtenauer. The Early Sixteenth Century Swordsmanship Comments in the "Goliath" Manuscript. Poland: Adam Marshall, 2010. ISBN 978-83-7611-662-4

References

  1. Jens P. Kleinau. "Schirrmeister, Schermeister, Schirmmeister". Hans Talhoffer ~ A Historical Martial Arts blog by Jens P. Kleinau], 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  2. The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of Paulus Kal's treatise: MS 1825 (1460s), Cgm 1570 (ca. 1470), and MS KK5126 (1480s).
  3. For a different perspective, see Christian Henry Tobler. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Werner J. Hoffmann. "Mscr.Dresd.C.487: Siegmund am Ringeck, Fechtlehre". Tiefenerschließung und Digitalisierung der deutschsprachigen mittelalterlichen Handschriften der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (SLUB) Dresden. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  5. Dresden fol. 31r.
  6. Dresden fol. 20r.
  7. Dresden fol. 27r.
  8. MS M.I.29 is signed and internally dated on folio 158r.
  9. MS E.1939.65.341 is internally dated on folio 22r.
  10. Friedrich Dörnhöffer. Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch. Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.
  11. The origin of Reichstadt Nr. 82 is detailed on folio IIr.
  12. The only date, 1570, is given on folio 123 (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See Joachim Meyer. The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.
  13. Medel's section of the Cod. I.6.2º.5 is internally dated on folio 21r.
  14. The record of the Marxbrüder in the manuscript ends on folio 20r with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 15.26 15.27 15.28 15.29 15.30 15.31 15.32 15.33 15.34 15.35 15.36 15.37 15.38 15.39 15.40 15.41 15.42 15.43 15.44 15.45 15.46 15.47 15.48 15.49 15.50 15.51 15.52 15.53 15.54 15.55 Word omitted from the Dresden.
  16. "Known as" omitted from the Dresden.
  17. D. schirmaiste~, R. schiermeister.
  18. Count Palatine
  19. Duke
  20. "and pictured" omitted from the Dresden.
  21. Corrected from »am«.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Line omitted from the Dresden.
  23. lit: hastening. hasten, maturare, accelerare, see Grimm
  24. alt: instruction
  25. D. Zeck: Tick; R. Zeckruhr: Insect bites.
  26. Possibly "strongly desire to conduct".
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Note, this is" omitted from the Dresden.
  28. "You shall" omitted from the Rostock.
  29. Lit: "Before the moment he comes with his to you".
  30. wiederhalten: lit. "hold against"; to withstand, resist.
  31. Alternately: weapons.
  32. D. Wer dz wäre: "Whoever defends these".
  33. Alternately: avow, legally promise.
  34. Possibly "wages".
  35. Lit: "hew other hews".
  36. "In the same five hews" omitted from the Rostock.
  37. ober is an adjective, oben is an adverb.
  38. R. "the".
  39. 39.00 39.01 39.02 39.03 39.04 39.05 39.06 39.07 39.08 39.09 39.10 39.11 39.12 39.13 39.14 39.15 39.16 39.17 39.18 39.19 39.20 39.21 39.22 39.23 39.24 39.25 39.26 39.27 39.28 39.29 39.30 39.31 39.32 39.33 39.34 39.35 39.36 39.37 39.38 39.39 39.40 39.41 39.42 39.43 39.44 Clause omitted from the Dresden.
  40. 40.0 40.1 "This is" omitted from the Dresden.
  41. abrucken: "removere" (remove), "absetzen" (offset).
  42. D. wider[sic]: "again".
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 D. "the".
  44. D. bind: "bind-in".
  45. R. Jun ger [sic].
  46. R. dem krieg: "the war".
  47. D. hurten: "to rush".
  48. "The hew, or thrust, or cut" omitted from the Dresden.
  49. "Nor thrust… cut" omitted from the Rostock.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 Sentence omitted from the Rostock.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 51.5 51.6 51.7 51.8 Word omitted from the Rostock.
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 52.3 52.4 52.5 52.6 Word omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  53. Alternately: ponder, weigh, calculate, estimate, consider.
  54. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 17rv
  55. Alternately: avenge, take full legal retribution.
  56. Alternately: straight, upright, properly.
  57. D. schüczen, R. behuetẽ.
  58. Rostock hews off at this point and picks up in the middle of the sixth subsequent play, probably indicating a missing page.
  59. Alternately: part, piece.
  60. aufkrummen: Lat. sursum torquere, twist, turn or bend up; twist, turn, bend, or cast back; avert, deflect .
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 61.4 61.5 Word omitted from the Salzburg.
  62. Likely a scribal error and should be "his".
  63. "The opening" omitted from the Salzburg.
  64. S. "the over- or under-hew".
  65. Possibly "it".
  66. S. vß gestreckten: "outstretched".
  67. Sentence omitted from the Salzburg; instead, it segues into the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss of the same verse, describing how the Crooked hew breaks the Ox.
  68. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 18v
  69. This phrase has no verb, likely due to scribal error; it has been completed based on the version in the treatise of Hans Medel.
  70. Rostock begins again at this point.
  71. "Cut" omitted from the Dresden.
  72. S. "Item".
  73. 73.0 73.1 Paragraphs 33 and 35 are substantially similar and are likely based on the same original text. However, they contain significant differences in the beginning of the device and it is unclear which represents the original version; the version found in Rostock and Salzburg seems to refer to the technique in 32, whereas the Dresden refers to 34 (not found in the others). In this compilation, the two versions are displayed separately, first that of the Rostock and Salzburg (34) and then that of the Dresden (35).
  74. S. "if".
  75. S. "his".
  76. S. "the".
  77. S. "where he shall guard himself".
  78. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 20v-21r
  79. D. has the word "Gloss" here; this appears to be a scribal error, as it corresponds to the position of the phrase "as is pictured here-after" in the Rostock, and all instances of that phrase were removed by the scribe of the Dresden.
  80. "Komp" added below the line in a different hand.
  81. "Stand with… shoulder, and" omitted from the Dresden.
  82. D. "thwart".
  83. 83.0 83.1 Alternately, wiederhalten: to struggle or resist.
  84. Word omitted from the Glasgow, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  85. "Or otherwise" omitted from the Salzburg.
  86. "-Cut" omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Rostock.
  87. Clause omitted from the Dresden; struck out in the Rostock.
  88. 88.0 88.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.
  89. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 21v
  90. R. "wind".
  91. "With the over-hew" omitted from the Glasgow.
  92. R. unternn: "lower".
  93. "Next to" omitted from the Rostock.
  94. Glasgow adds albeg: "always, continually".
  95. Or "connects"; alternately: rouses, stirs (ostensibly your opponent).
  96. "This is" omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  97. "Will strike" omitted from the Dresden.
  98. G. twerhaw: "thwart-hew".
  99. R. "wind".
  100. "Or left" omitted from the Glasgow.
  101. Everything from "and steal away" to the end of the sentence is omitted from the Dresden.
  102. Alternately: to turn around.
  103. "And strike in" omitted from the Dresden.
  104. D. "is".
  105. 105.0 105.1 D. "right".
  106. D. mit auß: "with from".
  107. As a thief would break into a house.
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 108.3 Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  109. Word is doubled in the Glasgow.
  110. annehmen: receive, accept, take up, assume, claim, obtain, etc.
  111. "Into the weak of his sword" omitted from the Rostock
  112. "Upright, elevated, straight, at a right angle"; Glasgow gives auff gerackten, which may be a misspelling of pPvD's aus gestrackten, "out-stretched".
  113. "With upright arms… right shoulder" omitted from the Rostock.
  114. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named clause-dg
  115. R. "pictured here".
  116. 116.00 116.01 116.02 116.03 116.04 116.05 116.06 116.07 116.08 116.09 116.10 116.11 116.12 116.13 116.14 116.15 116.16 116.17 116.18 116.19 116.20 116.21 116.22 116.23 Word omitted from the Glasgow.
  117. Corrected from »seiner«.
  118. S. bestetigstu: "to plant".
  119. G. abent: "evening", clearly an error; Medel: anwinden: "winding-upon".
  120. "To his point" omitted from the Rostock.
  121. "To his point" omitted from the Glasgow.
  122. S. "You may also do this".
  123. "A free over-hew" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  124. "With the visage" omitted from the Salzburg.
  125. "To his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  126. D., G. "the head".
  127. R. includes couplet 64 with this gloss.
  128. R. denn Schaytler: "the parter".
  129. 129.0 129.1 129.2 129.3 Clause omitted from the Rostock.
  130. D. der lange: "long, high, tall, or lofty".
  131. "To his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  132. "If he displaces" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  133. einhangen: to adhere, stick to, cleave to, hold on to, engage deeply.
  134. "With the long… and thrust him" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  135. Kehr has two etymologies: one is "to turn", the other is "to sweep away" or to "carry off"; the gloss supports the first derivation.
  136. Alternately: strongly, firmly, steadfastly.
  137. R. includes this couplet with the previous gloss.
  138. G., R., S. "Item".
  139. D. "hang-in"; "strike-in and" omitted.
  140. "The point" omitted from the Salzburg.
  141. Sentence omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  142. D., G., R. "you".
  143. D., G., S. "the".
  144. "In the displacement" omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.
  145. "Of the parter" omitted from the Dresden, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  146. S. fast vber sich: "firmly upward".
  147. Clause omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Salzburg.
  148. "His hands" omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Salzburg.
  149. G. "since".
  150. 150.0 150.1 Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 28v
  151. Rostock combines the glosses for couplets 65-67 into a single paragraph; they have been separated here according to their presentation in Dresden and Glasgow.
  152. D., G. Schon, lit. "already", "yet".
  153. D. stuch, R. stich: "press the thrust".
  154. D., G., S. "cut".
  155. 155.0 155.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  156. S. "well broken".
  157. "From the under-cut" omitted from the Salzburg.
  158. "And wind your sword… withdraw yourself" omitted from the Rostock.
  159. Imperative of fliehen.
  160. alt: unpleasant, repugnant
  161. "Note, this" omitted from the Dresden.
  162. "Will be" omitted from the Glasgow.
  163. 163.0 163.1 163.2 163.3 "Is called" omitted from the Dresden
  164. "With the hilt" omitted from the Dresden.
  165. G. auß gestrackten: "upstretched".
  166. "It all" omitted from the Dresden.
  167. "In this book" omitted from the Glasgow.
  168. G. "Guard yourself displacing crossed in front".
  169. D. instead continues "that the four displacings, they are the four hews".
  170. Setzen", possibly a shortening of versetzen, "displaces".
  171. D. "oxen".
  172. S. other.
  173. "they allow the... do not parry" omitted from the Dresden and Glasgow.
  174. S. Item
  175. R. "This is when one displaces your over-hew"; S. "If your over-hew is parried and it comes nearing upon him".
  176. D. "in front of".
  177. G., S. versetzte: "shifted, misplaced, displaced, parried".
  178. Word omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Rostock.
  179. 179.0 179.1 Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 31r
  180. "And wrench… his below" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  181. "The head" omitted from the Salzburg.
  182. 182.0 182.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.
  183. S. "also".
  184. G. mit dem schwert: "with the sword".
  185. D. "grasp with the sword".
  186. G. magst: "may".
  187. 187.0 187.1 G. "the".
  188. Alternately: defense.
  189. "A strike" omitted from the Dresden.
  190. "And hit him" omitted from the Rostock.
  191. 191.0 191.1 "The moment" omitted from the Dresden.
  192. D. wieder-kommen: to meet, to encounter, to run into".
  193. "Or fall… from you" omitted from the Rostock.
  194. Corrected from »dem«.
  195. Line omitted from the Rostock.
  196. R. "or".
  197. "If he then" omitted from the Rostock".
  198. D. haw: "hew".
  199. Mähnen, menen, mennen. To drive cattle, to impel an animal to move(in particular a driver or rider with a cattle-drive). To exert command over something reacting. To lead.
  200. geim: "watchfully, to observe, cautiously, with foresight".
  201. Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Salzburg.
  202. S. "the feeling work thusly".
  203. "You come… onset and" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  204. S. "soft or hard".
  205. S. "feeling".
  206. "To the nearest opening" omitted from the Salzburg.
  207. D., G. gewar, S. ÿnnen.
  208. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 33v
  209. Word omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.
  210. D. "winds".
  211. D. blitzscht: "flashes".
  212. Corrected from »arnn«.
  213. D. "Item".
  214. G. "note".
  215. Schier has the sense of approaching quickly and closely.
  216. Zucken has the connotation of yanking something hard or quickly, like yanking or snatching; there is an essence of agitation in the yank.
  217. "On the sword" omitted from the Dresden.
  218. Beginning of sentence in Glasgow reads "and work swiftly with the doubling.
  219. D. "(and with other plays)".
  220. 220.0 220.1 R. "hang down behind you".
  221. G. "next to this".
  222. R. "when in the running-in he also drives-up with the arms".
  223. Word omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.
  224. Corrected from »dim«.
  225. Line omitted from the Glasgow.
  226. D. "left hand inverted".
  227. 227.0 227.1 D. "your".
  228. "With an inverted hand" omitted from the Dresden.
  229. 229.0 229.1 G. "his".
  230. "Thus you" omitted from the Glasgow.
  231. Corrected from »rechtem«.
  232. Corrected from »sinem«.
  233. D. "One other wrestling at the sword".
  234. Clause omitted from the Glasgow.
  235. Sentence omitted from the Glasgow.
  236. D. "A sword taking".
  237. Read: "attacks".
  238. "With strength" omitted from the Glasgow.
  239. 239.0 239.1 G. far: "drive".
  240. D. "Yet another cut".
  241. "He then" omitted from the Dresden.
  242. "And press… pictured here" omitted from the Dresden.
  243. G. "your".
  244. "With that" omitted from the Dresden.
  245. "With the cut" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  246. Clause omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  247. Sentence omitted from the Dresden.
  248. Remainder of fragments from Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82), ff 13r-14v
  249. "With him" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  250. "Or test" omitted from the Dresden.
  251. Sentence omitted from the Augsburg and the Dresden.
  252. sach: thing, or disagreement, contention, dispute, or the thing underlying the disagreement, contention or dispute.
  253. 253.0 253.1 253.2 253.3 253.4 253.5 253.6 Word omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  254. A. "and".
  255. 255.0 255.1 255.2 255.3 255.4 255.5 Word omitted from the Augsburg and the Dresden.
  256. The word »es« is almost illegible.
  257. 257.0 257.1 257.2 257.3 257.4 257.5 Word omitted from the Augsburg.
  258. nachbinden: "attach to the end or behind something".
  259. "With the long edge" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  260. "From the sword" omitted from the Dresden.
  261. "With the point" omitted from the Dresden.
  262. D. "or"; word omitted from the Augsburg.
  263. abziechen.
  264. D. Mörck Ee: "Note, before".
  265. "just near" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  266. "When he… the sword" omitted from the Dresden.
  267. A., D. "the".
  268. D. "hews from above to below".
  269. Corrected from »ausgerattñ«.
  270. D. "to the other side to the opening".
  271. "Your sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  272. Sentence omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  273. shifting, balance
  274. "Art of" omitted from the Dresden.
  275. A., D. "shortened for you to understand".
  276. "Quite well" omitted from the Augsburg.
  277. Dresden reverses these.
  278. "Also so that… play" omitted from the Dresden.
  279. wägen: "to have weight, to lay on a scale, to estimate"; it has a bunch of other senses that are provocative to the action at hand, such as: "to poise, balance, to stir up or agitate, to incite a response", but there's not enough in the text to make it a defensible choice.
  280. "And properly estimate" omitted from the Dresden.
  281. "The sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  282. D. "understand".
  283. "With strength" omitted from the Dresden.
  284. "And thrust" omitted from the Dresden.
  285. "Of the" omitted from the Glasgow.
  286. "-In the point above" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  287. A. "over-windings-upon".
  288. A. "and".
  289. D. "and"; omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  290. "And shall" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  291. "You step towards" omitted from the Dresden.
  292. D. "wounder".
  293. R. and V. seems to match the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss.
  294. Orignal: “ableyttest,” - “ableiten,” literally to lead away, also to derive, deduce, divert, drain, deflect, channel off.
  295. “Zu dem treffen,” could be in the sense of the two fencers meeting each other, or one lance connecting to the other, or a lance landing a hit. Context indicates that it is the first for this one.
  296. “Schaff griff,” the translation “sheep hold” is not conclusive, it may also refer to a type of water carrier that is held in a similar way to the hold. It may also be related to how one would carry a sheep when shearing or otherwise.
  297. Original: “sytigklich,” or “sittiglich,” at the time meant “moderately” in the sense of slowly or not too fast, modern “sittlich” means morally or ethically.
  298. Original: “taschn haw.” A “tasset” is a piece of armor that covers the side of the thigh. It is possible that the last part of this hew aims for a gap in the armor on the back of the leg. This translation is not conclusive.
  299. Original: “auß,” however the Dresden version says “vff” here, and “aus” does not make sense.
  300. “Zawm,” - “zaum,” literally “bridle,” context continually indicates that they are talking about the reins.
  301. Original: “ob dich das roß vertrueg,” literally “if the horse make a fool out of you.” Likely means something like if the horse moves in a way that you don’t expect, or if the horse runs away while you’re trying to do something.
  302. Original: “schütten”.
  303. Original: “gehultz,” could be modernized to “hilt,” which is a term that could mean multiple parts of the sword today, but they are talking about the crossguard.
  304. “Stoss,” could also mean push, strike, or bash.
  305. “Twer,” also often translated as thwart, cross, crosswise.
  306. The verb is missing in this sentence, in the Dresden version “heng” (hang) is used here.
  307. Corrected from »geradt«.
  308. “Verschlingst” - “verschlingen,” to devour, engulf, scarf, etc.
  309. Unclear, could be “when he hews in to you, parry…” Unclear because “hawt” is used instead of “haw,” also the construction of the sentence is not typical. The Dresden version is much clearer that you are the one hewing in and he is parrying.
  310. The text ends here abruptly, in the middle of a play. Since the page isn't full, it's unclear why the scribe stopped at this point. The subsequent folia come from earlier in the manuscript; they were removed and then added back in at the end.
  311. “Zu vor auß,” in the sense of bringing something to the forefront.
  312. Engages - “greyff… an,” (angreiffen), attacks - “velt… an” (anfallen), these words have roughly the same meaning. You are both engaging in wrestling against each other.
  313. “Aliud,” Latin.
  314. Likely an error intending “your,” as it is in the previous passage.
  315. “Gewappent,” - “gewappnet,” wearing armor.
  316. “Jagen,” to hunt, seems to mean when someone is riding behind another, rather than “gleich” (equally) or “zusammen” (together), when both riders ride toward one another.
  317. “Muß er das swert fallñ lassñ,” literally “he must let the sword fall.”
  318. Original: “dich massen,” to measure or moderate yourself, different original word from “moderately” early in the text, which was translated from “sittiglich.”
  319. Original: “schünre,” translated as “schnüre,” meaning “laces” or “cords.”
  320. “vier haubt ringñ”