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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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{{master begin
 
{{master begin
  | title = Preface and Dedication
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  | title = Dedication and Foreword
 
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| rowspan="2" | <p>[[File:MS A.4º.2 01r.jpg|400px|center]]</p>
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| class="noline" rowspan="2" | <p>[[File:MS A.4º.2 01r.jpg|400px|center]]</p>
 
<p>[[File:MS A.4º.2 02v.jpg|400px|center]]</p>
 
<p>[[File:MS A.4º.2 02v.jpg|400px|center]]</p>
 
| <p>'''To the Well born Lord, Duke Ottbo Count of Solms, Lord of Munzenberg and Sonnewaldt my Gracious Sir'''</p>
 
| <p>'''To the Well born Lord, Duke Ottbo Count of Solms, Lord of Munzenberg and Sonnewaldt my Gracious Sir'''</p>
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Crest.jpg|center|400px]]
 
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{{master subsection begin
 
{{master subsection begin
  | title = Introduction
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  | title = Contents
 
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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
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! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
<section end="credits1"/>
 
<section end="credits1"/>
 
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| <p>'''Contents of the first Book on Fencing with the Sword / and how its description is ordered / and whereupon this Knightly Art’s foundations are laid.'''</p>
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| <p>'''Contents of the first Book on Fencing with the Sword, and how its description is ordered, and whereupon this Knightly Art’s foundations are laid.'''</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/22|1|lbl=1.1ra}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/22|1|lbl=Ⅰ.1r.1}}
  
 
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| <p>As I intent to diligently and truly and to the best of my understanding and abilities describe the art of Fencing in the Knightly and Manly weapons that are currently used most often by us Germans, and because fencing with the sword is not just the source and origin of all other forms of fencing but, as experience shows and as is obvious, also the most artful and manly next to other weapons, I deem it necessary and good to begin with it and do so in brevity but also clarity as it is customary in other arts and disciplines.</p>
 
| <p>As I intent to diligently and truly and to the best of my understanding and abilities describe the art of Fencing in the Knightly and Manly weapons that are currently used most often by us Germans, and because fencing with the sword is not just the source and origin of all other forms of fencing but, as experience shows and as is obvious, also the most artful and manly next to other weapons, I deem it necessary and good to begin with it and do so in brevity but also clarity as it is customary in other arts and disciplines.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/22|2|lbl=1.1rb}}
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| <p>Firstly, list the terminology invented by masters of this art so that one can learn and comprehend the secrecy and speed of it all the quicker and easier. After that, explain these terms so that everyone may understand what is meant by them.</p>
 
| <p>Firstly, list the terminology invented by masters of this art so that one can learn and comprehend the secrecy and speed of it all the quicker and easier. After that, explain these terms so that everyone may understand what is meant by them.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/22|3|lbl=1.1rc}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/22|3|lbl=.1r.3}}
  
 
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| <p>Then thirdly, achieve the ability to extend the art in your own right, and from your clarity attain and exude the proper judgement in Stance and Strikes so that Youth will not have to learn this art unguided and, because of your unspoken word, ill is wrought and they thus learn wrongly to the detriment of the art. Once achieved, we need your words and thoughts in this art, first from notes you would clarify, then onto subjects important to read in training, then to other subjects you want to develop further, so that the discipline of fencing grows on properly understood principles you have contributed to, rather than relying on mindless juggling, thus greater the difference between juggling and fencing will become, and the Knightly art of Fencing will grow from Warriors far and wide, particularly to Citizens at large, but beware the Juggler, to whom the unseemliest losses are and who is found everywhere in the world, until all are put away.</p>
 
| <p>Then thirdly, achieve the ability to extend the art in your own right, and from your clarity attain and exude the proper judgement in Stance and Strikes so that Youth will not have to learn this art unguided and, because of your unspoken word, ill is wrought and they thus learn wrongly to the detriment of the art. Once achieved, we need your words and thoughts in this art, first from notes you would clarify, then onto subjects important to read in training, then to other subjects you want to develop further, so that the discipline of fencing grows on properly understood principles you have contributed to, rather than relying on mindless juggling, thus greater the difference between juggling and fencing will become, and the Knightly art of Fencing will grow from Warriors far and wide, particularly to Citizens at large, but beware the Juggler, to whom the unseemliest losses are and who is found everywhere in the world, until all are put away.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/22|4|lbl=Ⅰ.1r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/23|1|lbl=Ⅰ.1v.1|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>Fencing with the Sword is nothing other than a discipline, wherein your force strives together with your sword in placement so that one with the other, using care and agility, artfulness, delicacy and manlyness, are at need the same both in strikes and in other handwork one is obliged to, excepting when one is not in a serious situation, thus by such discipline one will be more dangerous and more skillful, and when needing to protect one’s body be more effective.</p>
 
| <p>Fencing with the Sword is nothing other than a discipline, wherein your force strives together with your sword in placement so that one with the other, using care and agility, artfulness, delicacy and manlyness, are at need the same both in strikes and in other handwork one is obliged to, excepting when one is not in a serious situation, thus by such discipline one will be more dangerous and more skillful, and when needing to protect one’s body be more effective.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/23|2|lbl=1.1vb}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/23|2|lbl=.1v.2}}
 
 
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| <p>This can be advanced in three stages and be organized thus, namely as the Start, the Middle and the End, where the three stages each have one aim which you shall fence through, and must do one by one to advance, that you thereby know with which strikes or stances you will engage your counterpart and then frontally attack as you would in the Middle stage’s handwork, letting fly to work against the openings, keeping the initiative such that his attacks are preempted.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/23|3|lbl=1.1vc}}
 
  
 
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| <p>The Last is as you are fulfilled and will, with harm neither inflicted nor received, withdraw.</p>
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| <p>This can be advanced in three stages and be organized thus, namely as the Start, the Middle and the End, where the three stages each have one aim which you shall fence through, and must do one by one to advance, that you thereby know with which strikes or stances you will engage your counterpart and then frontally attack as you would in the Middle stage’s handwork, letting fly to work against the openings, keeping the initiative such that his attacks are preempted. The Last is as you are fulfilled and will, with harm neither inflicted nor received, withdraw.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/23|4|lbl=1.1vd}}
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<p>The End is the resolution, where one fencer shall withdraw without damage from his opponent and strike away if desired.</p>
 
<p>The End is the resolution, where one fencer shall withdraw without damage from his opponent and strike away if desired.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/23|4|lbl=.1v.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/24|1|lbl=Ⅰ.2r.1|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>The initial pre-fencing is the face off from the Stances to the strikes, which are of two kinds, namely the Lead Stances and the Secondary Stances, we start with the Lead Stances.</p>
 
| <p>The initial pre-fencing is the face off from the Stances to the strikes, which are of two kinds, namely the Lead Stances and the Secondary Stances, we start with the Lead Stances.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>There are four Lead Stances, the Roof or Upper Guard, the Ox, the Fool, and the Plough. There are eight Secondary Stances, Wrathful Guard, Window Breaker, Long Point, Barrier Guard, Unicorn, Key, Iron Door, Changer.</p>
 
| <p>There are four Lead Stances, the Roof or Upper Guard, the Ox, the Fool, and the Plough. There are eight Secondary Stances, Wrathful Guard, Window Breaker, Long Point, Barrier Guard, Unicorn, Key, Iron Door, Changer.</p>
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The strikes with the Sword are many, belonging to two groups, which are common to both the direct and indirect strikes which we shall name. The first group is named the Lead or Principal strikes, on which all other strikes are based, and which are four, Over, Under, Middle, and Wrathful strikes. The others are named the secondary or derivative strikes, which are twelve in number, namely the Glance, Curve, Short, Slide, Bounce: Single and Double, Blind, Wound, Crown, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Change Strike.</p>
 
| <p>The strikes with the Sword are many, belonging to two groups, which are common to both the direct and indirect strikes which we shall name. The first group is named the Lead or Principal strikes, on which all other strikes are based, and which are four, Over, Under, Middle, and Wrathful strikes. The others are named the secondary or derivative strikes, which are twelve in number, namely the Glance, Curve, Short, Slide, Bounce: Single and Double, Blind, Wound, Crown, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Change Strike.</p>
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|  
 
|  
 
| <p>Beyond these strikes come the proper Master Strikes, which we shall also name, from which all masterful and artful moves with the Sword are made and accomplished with varying grips, these are Wrath, Arc, Traverser, Glancer and Vertex which are all used when wanting to conclude and complete, and which I will describe to you. Just as I introduced pre-fencing, so I have clearly spoken and introduced the Strikes to you.</p>
 
| <p>Beyond these strikes come the proper Master Strikes, which we shall also name, from which all masterful and artful moves with the Sword are made and accomplished with varying grips, these are Wrath, Arc, Traverser, Glancer and Vertex which are all used when wanting to conclude and complete, and which I will describe to you. Just as I introduced pre-fencing, so I have clearly spoken and introduced the Strikes to you.</p>
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Line 384: Line 379:
 
| <p>The second or Handwork in the Middle Stage involves the greatest art, where all your withdrawals in the fight can be advances. Look not only to how one can use the sword in binding, Winding, Changing, Enticing, Following After, Cutting, Doubling, Flowing off to leave be or in whatever shape you’ve cut, Hewing, Advancing, Twitching and Jerking, Adjusting, Grappling, Charging In, Throwing, and End Wrestling. An important concept is Targetting, through which one must come to understand Man and Sword, and through which one comes to understand proper stance and footwork, and from which how one shall handle one’s point.</p>
 
| <p>The second or Handwork in the Middle Stage involves the greatest art, where all your withdrawals in the fight can be advances. Look not only to how one can use the sword in binding, Winding, Changing, Enticing, Following After, Cutting, Doubling, Flowing off to leave be or in whatever shape you’ve cut, Hewing, Advancing, Twitching and Jerking, Adjusting, Grappling, Charging In, Throwing, and End Wrestling. An important concept is Targetting, through which one must come to understand Man and Sword, and through which one comes to understand proper stance and footwork, and from which how one shall handle one’s point.</p>
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>That brings us to the end, which flows from the Middle, and has the greatest Practical use, by which one ends each case, from thereof Withdraw soundly, in order to report what happened, and so arrange it all in the first chapter of Sword Fighting, from the Master Principles onward, so on to officially profess more skill in this Weapon, and by using this Book you shall Teach the initiates, and so after shall this art drive on to become more useful at need, and shall from others range farther to be sufficiently retold.</p>
 
| <p>That brings us to the end, which flows from the Middle, and has the greatest Practical use, by which one ends each case, from thereof Withdraw soundly, in order to report what happened, and so arrange it all in the first chapter of Sword Fighting, from the Master Principles onward, so on to officially profess more skill in this Weapon, and by using this Book you shall Teach the initiates, and so after shall this art drive on to become more useful at need, and shall from others range farther to be sufficiently retold.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | <p>Such input I have seen fit to make for purposes of clearer understanding, so that with this Book each onward going shall become easier to understand, thus easier to modify, and thus initially to learn, and thus I shall see such Knightly arts grow onward, and will now with the first Letter of this chapter, whose first purpose is to teach usefulness, instruct by moving on to present the Four Targets.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>Such input I have seen fit to make for purposes of clearer understanding, so that with this Book each onward going shall become easier to understand, thus easier to modify, and thus initially to learn, and thus I shall see such Knightly arts grow onward, and will now with the first Letter of this chapter, whose first purpose is to teach usefulness, instruct by moving on to present the Four Targets.</p>
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|}
 
|}
Line 416: Line 411:
  
 
<p>From One’s divisions one shall come to understand the Openings and Stances, to and from which one will fence, ongoing to grasping the Middle or Handwork which will be described in the course of this Book, even though at first I was willing to sit and describe this subject alone without any other considerations. Then we move on to examine Fencing in all its components and arts, to be at first known from lessons, then from there to be shown, and then onward to be handled, and you shall at first want to take care to demonstrate how it’s properly done, so that not only the Middle or Handwork is attained, but that the Openings shall be minded, from lessons thereon to note taking, and going forward I shall not leave my written lessons behind me to be forgotten.</p>
 
<p>From One’s divisions one shall come to understand the Openings and Stances, to and from which one will fence, ongoing to grasping the Middle or Handwork which will be described in the course of this Book, even though at first I was willing to sit and describe this subject alone without any other considerations. Then we move on to examine Fencing in all its components and arts, to be at first known from lessons, then from there to be shown, and then onward to be handled, and you shall at first want to take care to demonstrate how it’s properly done, so that not only the Middle or Handwork is attained, but that the Openings shall be minded, from lessons thereon to note taking, and going forward I shall not leave my written lessons behind me to be forgotten.</p>
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>Now we will visualise a man in four quarters or parts, Above and Below and on both the Right and the Left. Beyond this and how you view yourself, I dare not describe further, but if you care to look, you see that humans are arranged in high and low and right and left parts. In order to better understand my meaning, examine the figure on the right side of the picture above.</p>
 
| <p>Now we will visualise a man in four quarters or parts, Above and Below and on both the Right and the Left. Beyond this and how you view yourself, I dare not describe further, but if you care to look, you see that humans are arranged in high and low and right and left parts. In order to better understand my meaning, examine the figure on the right side of the picture above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
Line 427: Line 422:
 
| <p>And if these four parts weren’t already addressed enough for one, against them the Ancient German Fencer will need to strike with the various strikes as they are known among us Germans at this time, so special in their Handywork with the Winding, these will fight the furthest and against the Greatest since all of humanity in common is divided in the above named four parts. We see how the the Upper Vertices meet, and Below how the Chin and Throat are relevant. Onward we see the Right and Left parts which are joined across the Ears, both sides are relevant, both right and Left ears will be addressed.</p>
 
| <p>And if these four parts weren’t already addressed enough for one, against them the Ancient German Fencer will need to strike with the various strikes as they are known among us Germans at this time, so special in their Handywork with the Winding, these will fight the furthest and against the Greatest since all of humanity in common is divided in the above named four parts. We see how the the Upper Vertices meet, and Below how the Chin and Throat are relevant. Onward we see the Right and Left parts which are joined across the Ears, both sides are relevant, both right and Left ears will be addressed.</p>
 
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Line 434: Line 429:
  
 
<p>In addition my need is to know then how in all weapons such concepts can be understood in the short term and be shown and explained, and if not to be returned to, until the Person can explain the sections, so by them if the opposing fencer tries to mark one or another part, one knows with proper displacement how to smoothly move to secure themselves. Or if one or another intends to aim for an opening, he can also strive to undertake this strike correctly. Then each one shall probe to hit the four points, be met there, and have to guard against same, and thus must always be on Guard, ready to displace.</p>
 
<p>In addition my need is to know then how in all weapons such concepts can be understood in the short term and be shown and explained, and if not to be returned to, until the Person can explain the sections, so by them if the opposing fencer tries to mark one or another part, one knows with proper displacement how to smoothly move to secure themselves. Or if one or another intends to aim for an opening, he can also strive to undertake this strike correctly. Then each one shall probe to hit the four points, be met there, and have to guard against same, and thus must always be on Guard, ready to displace.</p>
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|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | <p>The means to learn what follows from the Stances, Strikes, and Targets is undertaken here more easily, in that these descriptions and presentations are enough for one to flow on.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>The means to learn what follows from the Stances, Strikes, and Targets is undertaken here more easily, in that these descriptions and presentations are enough for one to flow on.</p>
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|}
 
|}
Line 461: Line 456:
  
 
<p>Now we will clarify this and why it is done in fencing, namely how one or another are like the parts of one’s body which one strikes away from in knightly fashion or accordingly defend them at need. Just like the parts of the human are quickly understood, so it’s again apparent from noting why and how certain relative parts of the sword work against others to bring success, and similarly how you should know these labels or overviews before you try yourself likewise, so thus onward from nothing else than your Sword shall you cause communication, and meanwhile have wisdom not in only one device, but also shortly know cuts with the short edge, then with the long, then with the strong, and with the weak, then will you charge on to success from the Sword’s necessities and from heeding this Art’s known elements also have something to say.</p>
 
<p>Now we will clarify this and why it is done in fencing, namely how one or another are like the parts of one’s body which one strikes away from in knightly fashion or accordingly defend them at need. Just like the parts of the human are quickly understood, so it’s again apparent from noting why and how certain relative parts of the sword work against others to bring success, and similarly how you should know these labels or overviews before you try yourself likewise, so thus onward from nothing else than your Sword shall you cause communication, and meanwhile have wisdom not in only one device, but also shortly know cuts with the short edge, then with the long, then with the strong, and with the weak, then will you charge on to success from the Sword’s necessities and from heeding this Art’s known elements also have something to say.</p>
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|  
 
| <p>We define the form and figure of the Sword’s parts as its Pommel, Point, Cross or Hilt, Haft or Grip, and the Blade, about which, though without evaluation, we will now say several words.</p>
 
| <p>We define the form and figure of the Sword’s parts as its Pommel, Point, Cross or Hilt, Haft or Grip, and the Blade, about which, though without evaluation, we will now say several words.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The Blade has basically two underlying divisions, where the first is the Strong and Weak, the other the Short and Long edges, those being the forward and trailing edges.</p>
 
| <p>The Blade has basically two underlying divisions, where the first is the Strong and Weak, the other the Short and Long edges, those being the forward and trailing edges.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The Strong of the Sword is the name for the part running from the Cross or Hilt to the middle of the blade, the Weak is from the middle to and with the point or end itself, from which the Long and Short edges grow.</p>
 
| <p>The Strong of the Sword is the name for the part running from the Cross or Hilt to the middle of the blade, the Weak is from the middle to and with the point or end itself, from which the Long and Short edges grow.</p>
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|-  
 
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Line 482: Line 477:
 
| <p>The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.</p>
 
| <p>The Long Edge is the full length of edge from the fingers onward, directed against your opponent, the Short or half edge is the one nearest the thumb, between the thumb and index finger, first finger pointing at the fencer’s self, as if it is imitating the other’s weapon. We will speak as well of the spine of the sword, as shown in the previous illustration.</p>
 
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|-  
 
| <p>From the overlying parts of the sword springs forths the correct total view, which is very useful in fencing, namely that the Sword is outwardly grouped in four parts and divisions, as is seen in the previous illustration.</p>
 
| <p>From the overlying parts of the sword springs forths the correct total view, which is very useful in fencing, namely that the Sword is outwardly grouped in four parts and divisions, as is seen in the previous illustration.</p>
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The first to be named is the Bind or Haft, including Pommel and Cross, for charging, Wrenching, Grappling, Throwing, and of service in other work.</p>
 
| <p>The first to be named is the Bind or Haft, including Pommel and Cross, for charging, Wrenching, Grappling, Throwing, and of service in other work.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The second is the Strong, as was counted, used in Cutting, Winding, Impacting, and otherwise where the Strong is useful in fencing.</p>
 
| <p>The second is the Strong, as was counted, used in Cutting, Winding, Impacting, and otherwise where the Strong is useful in fencing.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The third part is the Middle, which lies between strong and weak on the halfway part and is used when needing to close in the changeful work, where it will be resorted to at every opportunity when needed.</p>
 
| <p>The third part is the Middle, which lies between strong and weak on the halfway part and is used when needing to close in the changeful work, where it will be resorted to at every opportunity when needed.</p>
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|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | <p>The fourth is the Weak, through which Changing, Rushing, Slinging, and similar such will duly be used in fencing, of which in what follows there will be many examples and pieces.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>The fourth is the Weak, through which Changing, Rushing, Slinging, and similar such will duly be used in fencing, of which in what follows there will be many examples and pieces.</p>
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Line 536: Line 531:
 
<p>Since the Stances or Guards have the four sections of ones body as their obvious origin, in that one is divided into four quarters, Over, Under, Left and Right, so also one’s opponent is divided and thus shall be encountered, as four Targets, and relative to them there are the four Primary Stances or Guards, from which all others originate and spring forth, which are the Ox, Plough, Roof and Fool, from which one comes to understand the secondaries which, in due order, one comes to deploy, which are the Wrathful Guard, Long Point, Changer, Close Guard, Iron Door, Hanging Point, Key, and Unicorn.</p>
 
<p>Since the Stances or Guards have the four sections of ones body as their obvious origin, in that one is divided into four quarters, Over, Under, Left and Right, so also one’s opponent is divided and thus shall be encountered, as four Targets, and relative to them there are the four Primary Stances or Guards, from which all others originate and spring forth, which are the Ox, Plough, Roof and Fool, from which one comes to understand the secondaries which, in due order, one comes to deploy, which are the Wrathful Guard, Long Point, Changer, Close Guard, Iron Door, Hanging Point, Key, and Unicorn.</p>
 
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Line 548: Line 543:
  
 
<p>Thus you have been told of both Ox Guards or Stances, which is being shown by the Left Figure of illustration B above.</p>
 
<p>Thus you have been told of both Ox Guards or Stances, which is being shown by the Left Figure of illustration B above.</p>
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|-  
Line 558: Line 553:
  
 
<p>The Right Plough is shown by the figure on the Right of the above illustration.</p>
 
<p>The Right Plough is shown by the figure on the Right of the above illustration.</p>
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Line 566: Line 561:
 
<p>The Guard of the Roof, which is also known as the High Guard, is explained as follows. Stand with your Left Foot forward, hold your Sword high over your head so its point is directly above, consider the figure on the left of the image above, illustration C, which indicates how one can operate from above, that all strikes can be fenced from the Roof or High Guard, which is why this Guard is named the Roof.</p>
 
<p>The Guard of the Roof, which is also known as the High Guard, is explained as follows. Stand with your Left Foot forward, hold your Sword high over your head so its point is directly above, consider the figure on the left of the image above, illustration C, which indicates how one can operate from above, that all strikes can be fenced from the Roof or High Guard, which is why this Guard is named the Roof.</p>
 
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<p>This will now be described. Stand with the Left leg forward, hold your Sword with the Point stretched out in front of you aimed at the ground in front of your forward foot, with the short edge above, the long edge below. Thus you stand in this Guard rightly, as you can see in the illustrated figure above on the right.</p>
 
<p>This will now be described. Stand with the Left leg forward, hold your Sword with the Point stretched out in front of you aimed at the ground in front of your forward foot, with the short edge above, the long edge below. Thus you stand in this Guard rightly, as you can see in the illustrated figure above on the right.</p>
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<p>The Wrathful Guard is known as such since the stance has a wrathful bearing, as will be shown. Stand with your left foot forward, hold your sword out from your right shoulder, so that the blade hangs behind you to threaten forward strikes, and mark this well, that all strikes out from the Guard of the Ox can be intercepted from the Wrathful stance, indeed leading from this stance shows unequal bearing from which One can entice onward, whereupon one can move quickly against the other as needed, as is shown by the Figure in illustration E (on the left).</p>
 
<p>The Wrathful Guard is known as such since the stance has a wrathful bearing, as will be shown. Stand with your left foot forward, hold your sword out from your right shoulder, so that the blade hangs behind you to threaten forward strikes, and mark this well, that all strikes out from the Guard of the Ox can be intercepted from the Wrathful stance, indeed leading from this stance shows unequal bearing from which One can entice onward, whereupon one can move quickly against the other as needed, as is shown by the Figure in illustration E (on the left).</p>
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<p>Stand with your Left foot forward, hold your Weapon with outstretched arms out in front of your face, so that you stand and point forward at your opponent’s face, and thus you stand in the Guard of the Long Point, which you can see in the picture in illustration A.</p>
 
<p>Stand with your Left foot forward, hold your Weapon with outstretched arms out in front of your face, so that you stand and point forward at your opponent’s face, and thus you stand in the Guard of the Long Point, which you can see in the picture in illustration A.</p>
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<p>This Guard shall now be fully described, stand with your Right foot forward, hold your weapon with the point or Weak stretched out from close at your side aimed at the ground, so that the short edge stands toward your opponent, such as can be seen from the right figure in illustration D above.</p>
 
<p>This Guard shall now be fully described, stand with your Right foot forward, hold your weapon with the point or Weak stretched out from close at your side aimed at the ground, so that the short edge stands toward your opponent, such as can be seen from the right figure in illustration D above.</p>
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<p>To put yourself into this guard, stand with your Left foot forward, hold your sword close to your right with the point to the ground and the pommel above, and with the short edge against you.</p>
 
<p>To put yourself into this guard, stand with your Left foot forward, hold your sword close to your right with the point to the ground and the pommel above, and with the short edge against you.</p>
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<p>What the right Iron Door is, which you will find out should you go farther onto Rapier Fencing, that while it is used in stabbing with the Sword as by us Germans, this guard is also easily deflected and sent to the ground. Although at this time it is used by the Italians and other nations, it covers like the Barrier Guard, and so of the Iron Door no further report is therefore required.</p>
 
<p>What the right Iron Door is, which you will find out should you go farther onto Rapier Fencing, that while it is used in stabbing with the Sword as by us Germans, this guard is also easily deflected and sent to the ground. Although at this time it is used by the Italians and other nations, it covers like the Barrier Guard, and so of the Iron Door no further report is therefore required.</p>
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| <p>There is a basic underlying division, and here I will shortly clarify both, and so will now describe the Iron Door. Stand with your right foot forward, hold your sword with the grip in front of the knee, with straightly hanging arms, that your point stands upward out at your opponent’s face. In addition, keep your Sword in front of you to shut like an iron door, and when you stand with feet wide and so come to lower your body, you can clear all strikes and stabs out and away from you.</p>
 
| <p>There is a basic underlying division, and here I will shortly clarify both, and so will now describe the Iron Door. Stand with your right foot forward, hold your sword with the grip in front of the knee, with straightly hanging arms, that your point stands upward out at your opponent’s face. In addition, keep your Sword in front of you to shut like an iron door, and when you stand with feet wide and so come to lower your body, you can clear all strikes and stabs out and away from you.</p>
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword F.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| <p>However, the Barrier Guard is when you hold your Sword with crossed hands in front of you with the point at the ground, which is seen from the figure in illustration F.</p>
 
| <p>However, the Barrier Guard is when you hold your Sword with crossed hands in front of you with the point at the ground, which is seen from the figure in illustration F.</p>
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<p>This stance is very close to the Ox in similar form, only different in that in the Ox your arms are strongly held in high mode, but here shall be directly outstretched before your face, letting the Sword hang toward the Earth, therefore it is named Hanging Point.</p>
 
<p>This stance is very close to the Ox in similar form, only different in that in the Ox your arms are strongly held in high mode, but here shall be directly outstretched before your face, letting the Sword hang toward the Earth, therefore it is named Hanging Point.</p>
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<p>The Key is shown by the left figure in illustration D, stand with your Left foot forward, and hold your Sword with the haft and crossed arms in front of your chest, so that the short edge lies on your Left Arm, and the point is aimed at your opponent’s face. Thus is this stance or guard rightly made.</p>
 
<p>The Key is shown by the left figure in illustration D, stand with your Left foot forward, and hold your Sword with the haft and crossed arms in front of your chest, so that the short edge lies on your Left Arm, and the point is aimed at your opponent’s face. Thus is this stance or guard rightly made.</p>
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<p>Come into pre-fencing with your Left foot forward, wings out from both sides, as if you would stand in the forenamed Key guard, drive with crossed hands overhead on your Right, so that the point is aimed high above and outward, thus it is named Unicorn, and stand as shown by the figure on the Right of illustration E.</p>
 
<p>Come into pre-fencing with your Left foot forward, wings out from both sides, as if you would stand in the forenamed Key guard, drive with crossed hands overhead on your Right, so that the point is aimed high above and outward, thus it is named Unicorn, and stand as shown by the figure on the Right of illustration E.</p>
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| <p>And thus are named the count of the Stances or Guards, and now all in the work phase will be fully and shortly examined. After this point in all fencing, you will Strike, Strive, Displace, or float to work for what you wish, and not remain in a stance, but always drive from one to the other, as one or the other must soon become afflicted, thus you especially must move on to keep the working initiative, and will lead out from one to another of the above cited stances, which I will clarify with a few words about the strikes through the lines or pathways.</p>
 
| <p>And thus are named the count of the Stances or Guards, and now all in the work phase will be fully and shortly examined. After this point in all fencing, you will Strike, Strive, Displace, or float to work for what you wish, and not remain in a stance, but always drive from one to the other, as one or the other must soon become afflicted, thus you especially must move on to keep the working initiative, and will lead out from one to another of the above cited stances, which I will clarify with a few words about the strikes through the lines or pathways.</p>
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Cuts.jpg|center]]
 
| <p>Firstly if you will execute the high or Vertex Strike, you will find yourself in three Stances, first in the start you will stand in the Roof, in the Middle in the Long Point, and end up in the Fool, so you have moved directly from above through the Line from A to E via three Guards or Stances. If you then drive farther on upward from below to displace with crossed hands, you will find yourself in three more Stances, at the start in the Iron Door, in the Middle the Hanging Point, and in the end full above you in the Unicorn, then grip your Sword with the haft before your chest, so that the half edge lies on your left arm. Now you stand in the Key, and thus you come have onward and drove on along Line A and E from one stance into the other.</p>
 
| <p>Firstly if you will execute the high or Vertex Strike, you will find yourself in three Stances, first in the start you will stand in the Roof, in the Middle in the Long Point, and end up in the Fool, so you have moved directly from above through the Line from A to E via three Guards or Stances. If you then drive farther on upward from below to displace with crossed hands, you will find yourself in three more Stances, at the start in the Iron Door, in the Middle the Hanging Point, and in the end full above you in the Unicorn, then grip your Sword with the haft before your chest, so that the half edge lies on your left arm. Now you stand in the Key, and thus you come have onward and drove on along Line A and E from one stance into the other.</p>
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<p>You can similarly strike out with your Sword from the Hanging Point, from which you drive over in front of you to move into the Guard of the Ox. Thus you find always, when taking the indicated Lines, one moves through them via at least three stances.</p>
 
<p>You can similarly strike out with your Sword from the Hanging Point, from which you drive over in front of you to move into the Guard of the Ox. Thus you find always, when taking the indicated Lines, one moves through them via at least three stances.</p>
 
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| <p>However it shall be a good Fencer who does not rush and who waits longer in his Stances, so that as soon as he can reach his opponent to attack, he can Fence onward to take the pre-named paths, as waiting longer allows many displacements from which one eventually can come to strike, as will be described below.</p>
 
| <p>However it shall be a good Fencer who does not rush and who waits longer in his Stances, so that as soon as he can reach his opponent to attack, he can Fence onward to take the pre-named paths, as waiting longer allows many displacements from which one eventually can come to strike, as will be described below.</p>
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| <p>The Stances are also very useful towards the divisions and openings, thus if one comes into a Stance without danger before Striking, he can soon be mindful of what path to take from pre-fencing. These then serve not just for careful and sensible changes from one Stance to the other, but also to entice the opponent, such that he will be made unable to know what you shall Fence with. Lastly this is also good and useful for all from here on, in that you will easily know and recognise your opponent’s part, and what he can safely fence with, and so thus oppose him more sensibly.</p>
 
| <p>The Stances are also very useful towards the divisions and openings, thus if one comes into a Stance without danger before Striking, he can soon be mindful of what path to take from pre-fencing. These then serve not just for careful and sensible changes from one Stance to the other, but also to entice the opponent, such that he will be made unable to know what you shall Fence with. Lastly this is also good and useful for all from here on, in that you will easily know and recognise your opponent’s part, and what he can safely fence with, and so thus oppose him more sensibly.</p>
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| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | <p>Now much has been said about this art’s start, namely the pre-fencing against your opponent, which faces off through the Stances to the Strikes. Now the rest of the art will follow and we will move onto other parts, and in due form onto the next chapter, which is Of The Strikes.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>Now much has been said about this art’s start, namely the pre-fencing against your opponent, which faces off through the Stances to the Strikes. Now the rest of the art will follow and we will move onto other parts, and in due form onto the next chapter, which is Of The Strikes.</p>
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<p>Now I come to write of the artful and free Knightly exersize, namely to the Strikes, which is a major Heading in Fencing in that the basics are given here, the number is told, each is described, and how they are executed to the full, will here be noted and told, and from here alone the friendly reader will afterward be reminded, that between the Sword Fighting times, when it was in custom for our forefathers and the ancients, and our time there is a great difference, in that not only was the point used, which is not the custom today, but of old much more of the Sword was used in the strikes, and they fenced sharply with both strikes and stabs, and thus shall I present this and other points of knowledge.</p>
 
<p>Now I come to write of the artful and free Knightly exersize, namely to the Strikes, which is a major Heading in Fencing in that the basics are given here, the number is told, each is described, and how they are executed to the full, will here be noted and told, and from here alone the friendly reader will afterward be reminded, that between the Sword Fighting times, when it was in custom for our forefathers and the ancients, and our time there is a great difference, in that not only was the point used, which is not the custom today, but of old much more of the Sword was used in the strikes, and they fenced sharply with both strikes and stabs, and thus shall I present this and other points of knowledge.</p>
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| <p>However, as of now the Strikes with the Sword belong to two underlying principles, as in the direct and inverted strikes. The Direct strikes are named such as they strike against the opponent with the long edge and outstretched arms. There are four, the Over, Wrathful, Middle and Under Strikes, and from these all the others come forth, and in the world will still be found none conceived as such, and of them not one of these will be feebly grasped and deployed by you. These are named the Lead or Principal Strikes.</p>
 
| <p>However, as of now the Strikes with the Sword belong to two underlying principles, as in the direct and inverted strikes. The Direct strikes are named such as they strike against the opponent with the long edge and outstretched arms. There are four, the Over, Wrathful, Middle and Under Strikes, and from these all the others come forth, and in the world will still be found none conceived as such, and of them not one of these will be feebly grasped and deployed by you. These are named the Lead or Principal Strikes.</p>
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| <p>The inverted strikes are those where in the strike you turn your sword hand around so that you hit the opponent, not with the full or long edge, but somewhat with the short edge, flat, or engage at an angle. Face this with the Slide, Short, Crown, Glance, Arc, Traverse, Bounce, Blind, Wind, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Changer Strikes.</p>
 
| <p>The inverted strikes are those where in the strike you turn your sword hand around so that you hit the opponent, not with the full or long edge, but somewhat with the short edge, flat, or engage at an angle. Face this with the Slide, Short, Crown, Glance, Arc, Traverse, Bounce, Blind, Wind, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Changer Strikes.</p>
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| <p>Thus you come to the four above cited Strikes, and from there the various strikes are named.</p>
 
| <p>Thus you come to the four above cited Strikes, and from there the various strikes are named.</p>
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| <p>Now from these both come five for further reading, as the Master Strikes will be named, not that one can thus fully use the weapon Rightly, and Master this art so soon, but that from them one can Master all proper artful elements which will be acted on from knowing them here, and thus you can Fence properly at need, and become an artfully striking Fencer, who retains all Master principles at the same time, and against whom nothing can be borne. These Strikes are Wrathful, Arc, Thwart, Glancer, and Vertex.</p>
 
| <p>Now from these both come five for further reading, as the Master Strikes will be named, not that one can thus fully use the weapon Rightly, and Master this art so soon, but that from them one can Master all proper artful elements which will be acted on from knowing them here, and thus you can Fence properly at need, and become an artfully striking Fencer, who retains all Master principles at the same time, and against whom nothing can be borne. These Strikes are Wrathful, Arc, Thwart, Glancer, and Vertex.</p>
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| <p>How all these are done I will show you in due order, and firstly speak of the Direct Strikes, of which the first will be the Over Strike.</p>
 
| <p>How all these are done I will show you in due order, and firstly speak of the Direct Strikes, of which the first will be the Over Strike.</p>
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Line 728: Line 723:
  
 
<p>The Over Strike is a strong strike directly from Above, against your opponent’s head or scalp, therefore it is also called Vertex Strike.</p>
 
<p>The Over Strike is a strong strike directly from Above, against your opponent’s head or scalp, therefore it is also called Vertex Strike.</p>
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<p>The Wrathful Strike is a serious strike from your Right Shoulder, against your opponent’s left ear, or through his face or chest, consider how it’s done through two lines, with the lines drawn through the upper right and crosswise overtop one another. This is the strongest beyond all others in that all one’s strength and manliness is laid against one’s opponent in fighting and fencing, therefore the ancients also named it Straight Strike or Father Strike. Along the considered lines you can move onwards, etc.</p>
 
<p>The Wrathful Strike is a serious strike from your Right Shoulder, against your opponent’s left ear, or through his face or chest, consider how it’s done through two lines, with the lines drawn through the upper right and crosswise overtop one another. This is the strongest beyond all others in that all one’s strength and manliness is laid against one’s opponent in fighting and fencing, therefore the ancients also named it Straight Strike or Father Strike. Along the considered lines you can move onwards, etc.</p>
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<p>The Middle or Traversing Strike can execute most effects the Wrathful Strike can, the difference is only that while the Wrathful Strike is a forceful high point, the Diagonal Traverse is traverses above, as shown in the Traverse line including both C and G. Such lines are also applicable to Dusack.</p>
 
<p>The Middle or Traversing Strike can execute most effects the Wrathful Strike can, the difference is only that while the Wrathful Strike is a forceful high point, the Diagonal Traverse is traverses above, as shown in the Traverse line including both C and G. Such lines are also applicable to Dusack.</p>
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<p>This you execute thusly, strike so that you move into the Right Ox (more is said about this in the next chapter) and thus can bring your opponent fencer into range, and step to strike from below traversing above into their left arm, while coming into position with the hilt high above your head, and thus complete. Regarding this, see the figures fighting against the left in the background of illustration B.</p>
 
<p>This you execute thusly, strike so that you move into the Right Ox (more is said about this in the next chapter) and thus can bring your opponent fencer into range, and step to strike from below traversing above into their left arm, while coming into position with the hilt high above your head, and thus complete. Regarding this, see the figures fighting against the left in the background of illustration B.</p>
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<p>The Glancing Strike is also a High strike, but has been so named in that one closes with a small glancing blow, which is done thus: put yourself in the Guard of the Roof or Wrath (as shown in the third chapter) with your left foot forward, from which you will be striking, and while striking be sure to wind your short edge against his strike, and hit with inverting hands at the same time as closing with him, step fully with your Right Foot toward his left side, and so quickly take his head, thus have you done it rightly, and will stand as shown by the figures fighting on the left side of illustration G.</p>
 
<p>The Glancing Strike is also a High strike, but has been so named in that one closes with a small glancing blow, which is done thus: put yourself in the Guard of the Roof or Wrath (as shown in the third chapter) with your left foot forward, from which you will be striking, and while striking be sure to wind your short edge against his strike, and hit with inverting hands at the same time as closing with him, step fully with your Right Foot toward his left side, and so quickly take his head, thus have you done it rightly, and will stand as shown by the figures fighting on the left side of illustration G.</p>
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<p>This strike is described thus: stand in the Wrath Guard with your left foot forward, when your opponent strikes, step with your right foot fully away from his strike and against his left side, strike with the long edge and crossed hands against his strike, or between his pommel and blade, diagonally over his hands, and fully overshoot his arms to lay on the blade, as shown in illustration D by the figures on the upper right hand side.</p>
 
<p>This strike is described thus: stand in the Wrath Guard with your left foot forward, when your opponent strikes, step with your right foot fully away from his strike and against his left side, strike with the long edge and crossed hands against his strike, or between his pommel and blade, diagonally over his hands, and fully overshoot his arms to lay on the blade, as shown in illustration D by the figures on the upper right hand side.</p>
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<p>You send yourself into the Thwarter thus: assume the primary stance of Wrathful Guard to the right (as shown in the previous chapter), that is you put your left foot forward and hold your sword over your right shoulder, as if you would strike a wrathful strike, and when your opponent strikes you from the roof or above, strike closely with your short edge, breaking against his strike from below, holding your hilt high above to displace near your head, and strike to close by stepping full onto his Left side, thus displacing and closing against the other as shown by the left background figures of illustration H. This can be executed to the left thus striking his right side with a changed point, in that you will strike against his right by engaging with the long edge.</p>
 
<p>You send yourself into the Thwarter thus: assume the primary stance of Wrathful Guard to the right (as shown in the previous chapter), that is you put your left foot forward and hold your sword over your right shoulder, as if you would strike a wrathful strike, and when your opponent strikes you from the roof or above, strike closely with your short edge, breaking against his strike from below, holding your hilt high above to displace near your head, and strike to close by stepping full onto his Left side, thus displacing and closing against the other as shown by the left background figures of illustration H. This can be executed to the left thus striking his right side with a changed point, in that you will strike against his right by engaging with the long edge.</p>
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<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
 
<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
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<p>This is a secretive attack, and is described thus: when your opponent strikes you from above, stand as if you would respond with a Arc Strike, that is to bind his sword with the half edge, but let it fall and drive through under his sword, strike with the half edge and crossed arms over his right arm to hit his head, thus you have closed off his sword with the long edge, and accomplished the Short Strike, and stand as is shown by the smaller figure (mid background) on the left of illustration B fighting against the right.</p>
 
<p>This is a secretive attack, and is described thus: when your opponent strikes you from above, stand as if you would respond with a Arc Strike, that is to bind his sword with the half edge, but let it fall and drive through under his sword, strike with the half edge and crossed arms over his right arm to hit his head, thus you have closed off his sword with the long edge, and accomplished the Short Strike, and stand as is shown by the smaller figure (mid background) on the left of illustration B fighting against the right.</p>
 
|  
 
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<section end="Kurtzhauw"/> <section begin="Glützhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kurtzhauw"/> <section begin="Glützhauw"/>
 
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<p>The Slide Strike is described as follows: when you are attacked from above, hit with even or free hands against his strike, aiming at his upper left opening, let your blade’s midsection ride up his blade so that the short edge will swing over his hands and hit his head.</p>
 
<p>The Slide Strike is described as follows: when you are attacked from above, hit with even or free hands against his strike, aiming at his upper left opening, let your blade’s midsection ride up his blade so that the short edge will swing over his hands and hit his head.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/46|2|lbl=.13rb}}
 
<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
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<p>This one is twofold, one the single, the other one named the double. The single is made thus: when your adversary strikes at you from above, meet his strike with a Zwerch, as soon as it connects, twitch the sword around the head, and strike from your left with the outward flat towards his ear, as shown by the large figures on the right hand side of Illustration K, so that the sword bounces back again, thus twitch it during the rebounding swing back around the head again, strike with the Zwerch towards the left, thus it is completed.</p>
 
<p>This one is twofold, one the single, the other one named the double. The single is made thus: when your adversary strikes at you from above, meet his strike with a Zwerch, as soon as it connects, twitch the sword around the head, and strike from your left with the outward flat towards his ear, as shown by the large figures on the right hand side of Illustration K, so that the sword bounces back again, thus twitch it during the rebounding swing back around the head again, strike with the Zwerch towards the left, thus it is completed.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.</p>
 
| <p>Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.</p>
 
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<section end="Prellhauw"/><section begin="Blendthauw"/>
 
<section end="Prellhauw"/><section begin="Blendthauw"/>
 
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<p>Bind your opponent’s sword from your right side, wind through in the clash against his left side with your hilt or haft below, when your opponent tries to swipe away the winding, quickly move the weak with crossed hands from your right toward his left against his head, that is the forward point, wind your hands through again or twist out to your left with the half edge. Thus you have fully executed the Blind Strike, which can be made in many ways and from there further on in places.</p>
 
<p>Bind your opponent’s sword from your right side, wind through in the clash against his left side with your hilt or haft below, when your opponent tries to swipe away the winding, quickly move the weak with crossed hands from your right toward his left against his head, that is the forward point, wind your hands through again or twist out to your left with the half edge. Thus you have fully executed the Blind Strike, which can be made in many ways and from there further on in places.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|2|lbl=.14rb}}
 
<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
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<p>The Wound Strike is described as follows: if your opponent strikes from above, then strike against his sword with crossed hands from the left and below, so that your pommel sits under your right arm, and thus quick to glide, step strongly from him from your left side with your left foot, swing your sword’s pommel out farther in an arc toward your left side so that the swing moves your long edge over his right arm behind his pommel or hits atop his right arm, as is shown by the figure in the right side foreground of illustration H, and closely thereafter your sword flies out from close to your side, and again strikes against the hands through the cross, so it is done.</p>
 
<p>The Wound Strike is described as follows: if your opponent strikes from above, then strike against his sword with crossed hands from the left and below, so that your pommel sits under your right arm, and thus quick to glide, step strongly from him from your left side with your left foot, swing your sword’s pommel out farther in an arc toward your left side so that the swing moves your long edge over his right arm behind his pommel or hits atop his right arm, as is shown by the figure in the right side foreground of illustration H, and closely thereafter your sword flies out from close to your side, and again strikes against the hands through the cross, so it is done.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|3|lbl=.14rc}}
 
<section end="Windthauw"/><section begin="Kronhauw"/>
 
<section end="Windthauw"/><section begin="Kronhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
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<p>This you hold thus: when you stand in the Plough or in a similar stance (which are discussed in an earlier chapter) which allow stabs from below, and your opponent strikes at you from above, then drive above you with a high traversing cross, intercept his strike above on your riccasso or quillons, and as soon as he slides, bring your pommel up high and strike with the half edge behind his blade onto his head, thus you have rightly executed the Crown Strike.</p>
 
<p>This you hold thus: when you stand in the Plough or in a similar stance (which are discussed in an earlier chapter) which allow stabs from below, and your opponent strikes at you from above, then drive above you with a high traversing cross, intercept his strike above on your riccasso or quillons, and as soon as he slides, bring your pommel up high and strike with the half edge behind his blade onto his head, thus you have rightly executed the Crown Strike.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|4|lbl=1.14rd}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/48|4|lbl=.14rd}}
 
<section end="Kronhauw"/><section begin="Kniechelhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kronhauw"/><section begin="Kniechelhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
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<p>This strike takes its name from the joint against which it is tried, and is completed thus: when at first you hold your hands high above your head, and your opponent is moving under his sword so his head is held between both arms, then strike with a traversing strike under his sword’s pommel, with a view to his knuckles or to the joints between hand and arm. If he holds his hands much too high, then strike with a rising traverse Strike from below up against the knob of his elbows, thus is it completed.</p>
 
<p>This strike takes its name from the joint against which it is tried, and is completed thus: when at first you hold your hands high above your head, and your opponent is moving under his sword so his head is held between both arms, then strike with a traversing strike under his sword’s pommel, with a view to his knuckles or to the joints between hand and arm. If he holds his hands much too high, then strike with a rising traverse Strike from below up against the knob of his elbows, thus is it completed.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|1|lbl=.14va}}
 
<section end="Kniechelhauw"/><section begin="Sturzhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kniechelhauw"/><section begin="Sturzhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
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<p>Although this strike is an Over Strike, be aware that between one and the other lies a minor difference, from which comes this strike’s name of Plunge Strike, that one strikes through by plungeing from above, and that the point comes against one’s opponent’s face from the Ox, and can thus be executed from the start or pre-fencing.</p>
 
<p>Although this strike is an Over Strike, be aware that between one and the other lies a minor difference, from which comes this strike’s name of Plunge Strike, that one strikes through by plungeing from above, and that the point comes against one’s opponent’s face from the Ox, and can thus be executed from the start or pre-fencing.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|2|lbl=.14vb}}
 
<section end="Sturzhauw"/><section begin="Wechselhauw"/>
 
<section end="Sturzhauw"/><section begin="Wechselhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>The Change Strike is nothing other than changing from one side to the other, from above to below and back again, before striking your opponent, thus make it so.</p>
 
<p>The Change Strike is nothing other than changing from one side to the other, from above to below and back again, before striking your opponent, thus make it so.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|3|lbl=.14vc}}
 
<section end="Wechselhauw"/><section begin="Schneller"/>
 
<section end="Wechselhauw"/><section begin="Schneller"/>
 
|-  
 
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<p>Rusher or twitch-hit(?) is basically a thing which is actually not a strike, but if the strike should be rushed it will be completed in the middle or full work when one has engaged, namely from above or on both sides or from below against your opponent with the flat or outer part of the blade, let the weapon snatch or rush inward in a swing over or under his blade.</p>
 
<p>Rusher or twitch-hit(?) is basically a thing which is actually not a strike, but if the strike should be rushed it will be completed in the middle or full work when one has engaged, namely from above or on both sides or from below against your opponent with the flat or outer part of the blade, let the weapon snatch or rush inward in a swing over or under his blade.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|4|lbl=.14vd}}  
 
<section end="Schneller"/>
 
<section end="Schneller"/>
 
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|}
 
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<p>Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.</p>
 
<p>Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|3|lbl=1.15rc|p=1}} [XVv] hauwen bistu zugleich auch wie du die Häuw abtragen solt / gelert und underricht worden / dises ob es wol mit den Häuwen wie jetzt gehört / nit kann abgesondert werden / will doch von nöten sein / hie von insonderheit mit underschiedlicher theilung zuhandlen. Merck derwegen anfenglich das des Versetzens zweyerley ist / das erste ist da du ohn allen sondern vortheil / gemeniglich nur aus forcht versetzest / in welchem du nichts anders thust / dann mit deinem Wehr / so du deinem gegenfechter entgegen heltst die streich die von im beschehen aufffahest / auch nit begerest ihn zu beschedigen / allein benüget an dem / wie du ohn schaden von ihm abziehen mögest.
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|3|lbl=.15rc|p=1}} [XVv] hauwen bistu zugleich auch wie du die Häuw abtragen solt / gelert und underricht worden / dises ob es wol mit den Häuwen wie jetzt gehört / nit kann abgesondert werden / will doch von nöten sein / hie von insonderheit mit underschiedlicher theilung zuhandlen. Merck derwegen anfenglich das des Versetzens zweyerley ist / das erste ist da du ohn allen sondern vortheil / gemeniglich nur aus forcht versetzest / in welchem du nichts anders thust / dann mit deinem Wehr / so du deinem gegenfechter entgegen heltst die streich die von im beschehen aufffahest / auch nit begerest ihn zu beschedigen / allein benüget an dem / wie du ohn schaden von ihm abziehen mögest.
  
 
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<p>You will learn of the Middle Guard later with the Dusack, whereas that will be done with one hand, here you shall place yourself in it with two hands. Then even if in the beginning I was not well disposed to set this here, I can indeed (since from nothing else can the Ward of the Roses be taught onward) otherwise not go forward, then mark when one comes ahead to you so that his sword is stretched out before him in the long point or else driving in direct displacement, then drive with your blade around in a circle from the middle guard right over around his, so that you come right back to the same middle guard with your blade, from there swing the weak forcefully out to him over his arm to his head, or as he then (just as you would would drive over his blade through the roses) meanwhile would fall from above down to your opening, then take his blade outward with the half edge, namely on the second time you come to be in the middle guard, then as quickly as he has not yet come to reach your opening, you come around just then with the Roses, with which you have enough time to come to the described out, after this you still take him outward, then let flow over in a curve in the air over your head (by which you mislead him) through a circle to the next opening.</p>
 
<p>You will learn of the Middle Guard later with the Dusack, whereas that will be done with one hand, here you shall place yourself in it with two hands. Then even if in the beginning I was not well disposed to set this here, I can indeed (since from nothing else can the Ward of the Roses be taught onward) otherwise not go forward, then mark when one comes ahead to you so that his sword is stretched out before him in the long point or else driving in direct displacement, then drive with your blade around in a circle from the middle guard right over around his, so that you come right back to the same middle guard with your blade, from there swing the weak forcefully out to him over his arm to his head, or as he then (just as you would would drive over his blade through the roses) meanwhile would fall from above down to your opening, then take his blade outward with the half edge, namely on the second time you come to be in the middle guard, then as quickly as he has not yet come to reach your opening, you come around just then with the Roses, with which you have enough time to come to the described out, after this you still take him outward, then let flow over in a curve in the air over your head (by which you mislead him) through a circle to the next opening.</p>
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| <p>Or as you have struck to the left into the Middle Guard in pre-fencing, and your counterpart strikes below this to you from above, then step well out from his strike to his right side, and throw your short edge above or outside his right arm to his head, and in this throw in let your blade shoot well in, either to his head or above both his arms, then nimbly twitch your sword upward again and strike him strongly with the long edge from your left above to his right arm, from there fence to him onward as with previous and following elements at your pleasure, and meanwhile since the Roses can also be fenced rightly from the Long Point, just as I set forth the previous element, I will describe it with the Long Point as well thus:</p>
 
| <p>Or as you have struck to the left into the Middle Guard in pre-fencing, and your counterpart strikes below this to you from above, then step well out from his strike to his right side, and throw your short edge above or outside his right arm to his head, and in this throw in let your blade shoot well in, either to his head or above both his arms, then nimbly twitch your sword upward again and strike him strongly with the long edge from your left above to his right arm, from there fence to him onward as with previous and following elements at your pleasure, and meanwhile since the Roses can also be fenced rightly from the Long Point, just as I set forth the previous element, I will describe it with the Long Point as well thus:</p>
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|4|lbl=1.42rd|p=1}} '''[XLIIv]''' damit zwingestu jhn das er gehlingen ubersich fehrt / als bald er solch es thut / so lasse dein Lincke hand vom knopff ab / und laß dein klingen gegen seiner Rechten von Unden auff in einer hand umb schnappen / und setze jhm den vordern ort an sein Brust / greiff in des dein knopff wider an / wie du solches an den kleinern Bilder zur Rechten hand mit dem F. hievor sehen kanst / stoß jhn also mit verkehrter hand von dir / laß als bald dein knopff wider ab / und dein Schwerdt umb dein Kopff fahren / und hauwe lang mit angreiffung des knopffs nach / dergleichen stuck soltu gegen die welche gern einlauffen gebrauchen.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/104|4|lbl=.42rd|p=1}} '''[XLIIv]''' damit zwingestu jhn das er gehlingen ubersich fehrt / als bald er solch es thut / so lasse dein Lincke hand vom knopff ab / und laß dein klingen gegen seiner Rechten von Unden auff in einer hand umb schnappen / und setze jhm den vordern ort an sein Brust / greiff in des dein knopff wider an / wie du solches an den kleinern Bilder zur Rechten hand mit dem F. hievor sehen kanst / stoß jhn also mit verkehrter hand von dir / laß als bald dein knopff wider ab / und dein Schwerdt umb dein Kopff fahren / und hauwe lang mit angreiffung des knopffs nach / dergleichen stuck soltu gegen die welche gern einlauffen gebrauchen.
  
 
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<p>Therefore note when a Roof guard Buffel is coming for you, then see that you parry once or twice, until you see the opportunity; that he has driven up the furthest for a stroke. Then drive his strike away from under on his arms and step well under him, thus he strikes his own arms on your blade.</p>
 
<p>Therefore note when a Roof guard Buffel is coming for you, then see that you parry once or twice, until you see the opportunity; that he has driven up the furthest for a stroke. Then drive his strike away from under on his arms and step well under him, thus he strikes his own arms on your blade.</p>
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<p><br/>I have gathered these three weapons together in a figure, while the spear is best arranged, with its length, in the above perspective thus, as in every figure previously shown, noted with a letter, so the diligent reader should not yet leave and want thus the half staff as a foundation of all long weapons the first take for the hand and firstly advise how many the lyings thus how you the same in the work should do rightly, teach and describe.</p>
 
<p><br/>I have gathered these three weapons together in a figure, while the spear is best arranged, with its length, in the above perspective thus, as in every figure previously shown, noted with a letter, so the diligent reader should not yet leave and want thus the half staff as a foundation of all long weapons the first take for the hand and firstly advise how many the lyings thus how you the same in the work should do rightly, teach and describe.</p>
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<p>Arrange yourself in the Upper Guard like this: stand with the left foot forward and hold your staff with the rear part at your chest, so that the fore end stands straight up toward the sky. You should direct it to both sides in the Work, like you are now doing it straight in front of you. If you shall always stand well with the left foot forward, then you must not have your feet too far apart, so that you could always have a step forward.</p>
 
<p>Arrange yourself in the Upper Guard like this: stand with the left foot forward and hold your staff with the rear part at your chest, so that the fore end stands straight up toward the sky. You should direct it to both sides in the Work, like you are now doing it straight in front of you. If you shall always stand well with the left foot forward, then you must not have your feet too far apart, so that you could always have a step forward.</p>
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<p>For these, arrange yourself like this: stand with the right foot forward and hold your staff with the middle part at your left hip, so that the shorter end and the butt point toward your opponent, but the longer end points behind you. Show your right side to him well, as you see in the lower picture in Figure A on the right hand side. The Middle Guard is the straight defence in front of the opponent, from which most fence.</p>
 
<p>For these, arrange yourself like this: stand with the right foot forward and hold your staff with the middle part at your left hip, so that the shorter end and the butt point toward your opponent, but the longer end points behind you. Show your right side to him well, as you see in the lower picture in Figure A on the right hand side. The Middle Guard is the straight defence in front of the opponent, from which most fence.</p>
 
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| <p>There are also four principle defences with the staff, like the binds: the first with the fore end of the staff from both sides, the second in front of the hand, the third in the middle, and the fourth is performed with the butt end. The while all such in techniques is enough to understand, is without ?? difficulties ??? to handle.</p>
 
| <p>There are also four principle defences with the staff, like the binds: the first with the fore end of the staff from both sides, the second in front of the hand, the third in the middle, and the fourth is performed with the butt end. The while all such in techniques is enough to understand, is without ?? difficulties ??? to handle.</p>
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<p>In the approach place yourself in the Upper Guard to the left, that is, so that the fore end or longer part of your staff stands up over your left shoulder, and thus step toward him with your left foot forward; if he thrusts toward your face or chest, then spring well away from his thrust toward his right side, and strike down from above with your staff (which you should be holding fast in both hands) full through on the middle of his staff, so that through this blow you come into the Right Lower Guard; from this (where he would further thrust to your face) tear with the half edge up toward your left shoulder again. While you tear upward like this, give your staff a swing with your left hand, and in this swing let go of the staff with your left hand, and strike with one hand from your right over across toward his temple. The upper blow should quickly happen together with the tear, as soon and while this blow connects, then grip your staff with your left hand again, and bring it back into the straight defence.</p>
 
<p>In the approach place yourself in the Upper Guard to the left, that is, so that the fore end or longer part of your staff stands up over your left shoulder, and thus step toward him with your left foot forward; if he thrusts toward your face or chest, then spring well away from his thrust toward his right side, and strike down from above with your staff (which you should be holding fast in both hands) full through on the middle of his staff, so that through this blow you come into the Right Lower Guard; from this (where he would further thrust to your face) tear with the half edge up toward your left shoulder again. While you tear upward like this, give your staff a swing with your left hand, and in this swing let go of the staff with your left hand, and strike with one hand from your right over across toward his temple. The upper blow should quickly happen together with the tear, as soon and while this blow connects, then grip your staff with your left hand again, and bring it back into the straight defence.</p>
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<p>Mark, when you strike from above through his staff like this, and after you have torn up again from below, and your left hand together with the fore end of your staff has come upright again, then at once turn up your right hand together with the butt as well, and ? the same ?, lower the fore end with your left hand near your left out to the side, and turn the forward longer part of the staff again up toward his right. This must all happen in a ?. Thrust as then further with a step out straight toward his face, but be careful that you don't turn your right hand downward again to your chest in thrusting, but rather shift the same also well at your chest and inward at your left arm in thrusting ahead of you in to him. So, from the Upper Guard you have learned: firstly, how you should step out and thrust at the same time at him; secondly, striking at his staff down from above and thrusting afterward; thirdly, how you break down through against his staff from above, and tear up from below; lastly, how you should make a deceptive thrust.</p>
 
<p>Mark, when you strike from above through his staff like this, and after you have torn up again from below, and your left hand together with the fore end of your staff has come upright again, then at once turn up your right hand together with the butt as well, and ? the same ?, lower the fore end with your left hand near your left out to the side, and turn the forward longer part of the staff again up toward his right. This must all happen in a ?. Thrust as then further with a step out straight toward his face, but be careful that you don't turn your right hand downward again to your chest in thrusting, but rather shift the same also well at your chest and inward at your left arm in thrusting ahead of you in to him. So, from the Upper Guard you have learned: firstly, how you should step out and thrust at the same time at him; secondly, striking at his staff down from above and thrusting afterward; thirdly, how you break down through against his staff from above, and tear up from below; lastly, how you should make a deceptive thrust.</p>
 
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<p>Mark, when you hold your right hand together with the butt of your staff at your right side in the approach, and you have lain your point well ahead of you out on your right side on the ground, observe as soon as he thrusts toward your face, then step step out with your right foot toward your right side, and with your left further toward his left to him; thrust in this way to his face above his left arm while he directs his thrust. You should also duck your head well down toward your right side over your staff while you thrust with him thus, away from his flying thrust, so you are the better defended.</p>
 
<p>Mark, when you hold your right hand together with the butt of your staff at your right side in the approach, and you have lain your point well ahead of you out on your right side on the ground, observe as soon as he thrusts toward your face, then step step out with your right foot toward your right side, and with your left further toward his left to him; thrust in this way to his face above his left arm while he directs his thrust. You should also duck your head well down toward your right side over your staff while you thrust with him thus, away from his flying thrust, so you are the better defended.</p>
 
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<p>Mark, when you fallen into the Left Lower Guard in the approach, and he strikes with one hand from above toward your head, then raise both your arms, and with this spring in well under his stroke, thus parrying his blow with your staff between your hands. As soon as and while the blow lands on your staff, and is still touching, draw the butt toward you with your right hand, letting the point drop downward, direct the same between his hands under his staff to his body, and thus thrust below his staff between his hands in front of his chest. While you are thrusting in like this, turn the butt of your staff together with your right hand down again, and could drive in inside your right arm. After the thrust is performed you should be nimble with the bind again on his staff; therewith you may the better protect yourself from what he does afterward.</p>
 
<p>Mark, when you fallen into the Left Lower Guard in the approach, and he strikes with one hand from above toward your head, then raise both your arms, and with this spring in well under his stroke, thus parrying his blow with your staff between your hands. As soon as and while the blow lands on your staff, and is still touching, draw the butt toward you with your right hand, letting the point drop downward, direct the same between his hands under his staff to his body, and thus thrust below his staff between his hands in front of his chest. While you are thrusting in like this, turn the butt of your staff together with your right hand down again, and could drive in inside your right arm. After the thrust is performed you should be nimble with the bind again on his staff; therewith you may the better protect yourself from what he does afterward.</p>
 
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<p>Or when you stand in the said way in the Right Lower Guard, then step again as before, while he thrusts, toward his right side away from his thrust, and strike off his staff together with him from your left toward your right, and afterward thrust nimbly again as before (before he can recover) to his face.</p>
 
<p>Or when you stand in the said way in the Right Lower Guard, then step again as before, while he thrusts, toward his right side away from his thrust, and strike off his staff together with him from your left toward your right, and afterward thrust nimbly again as before (before he can recover) to his face.</p>
 
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Line 5,175: Line 5,170:
 
<p><br/>Mark, when you come in the Lower Guard to someone in the approach, and he won't work after thrusting, then let yourself with gestures mark and behold, as you want to see all first what kind of fencing pieces be, as soon as and while he extends his staff thus from him, then jerk out in an sudden jerk or blow, and thrust nimbly (while his staff lurches away from the thrust) to his face. In this striking out you should diligently take care, that you (in your excitement) don't move your staff too far to the side, but rather strike his (as taught) in a jerk out, so that your staff is straight in front of his face, and thus the thrust is performed before he can recover himself again.</p>
 
<p><br/>Mark, when you come in the Lower Guard to someone in the approach, and he won't work after thrusting, then let yourself with gestures mark and behold, as you want to see all first what kind of fencing pieces be, as soon as and while he extends his staff thus from him, then jerk out in an sudden jerk or blow, and thrust nimbly (while his staff lurches away from the thrust) to his face. In this striking out you should diligently take care, that you (in your excitement) don't move your staff too far to the side, but rather strike his (as taught) in a jerk out, so that your staff is straight in front of his face, and thus the thrust is performed before he can recover himself again.</p>
 
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Line 5,183: Line 5,178:
 
<p>In the approach place yourself in the Middle Guard, such as is shown in the large picture printed in Figure A on the right hand side, and take care as soon as you can reach him, throw your staff with your right hand overthwart across his face, and in the throw give your staff a strong swing with your left hand, and loose the same from the staff, so that your staff can the swifter fly across his face and around your head; while your staff is thus flying through his face and around your head, step to him with your left foot forward, and grip under your staff again with your left hand, while your staff is still flying through the air, and strike to the other from your left to your right through the face; also against his staff through where he drives before him, this blow should be performed with both hands, so that you end in the Right Lower Guard after the blow. While your staff thus in this blow falls into the Lower Guard, if he would nimbly thrust at your face (which would be left open by this movement), then step with your right foot quickly on your right side, and thrust in with him at the same time also to his face, so that you have turned the rear part of your staff together with the long edge against his, and pulled your head well away over your staff, so you are defended.</p>
 
<p>In the approach place yourself in the Middle Guard, such as is shown in the large picture printed in Figure A on the right hand side, and take care as soon as you can reach him, throw your staff with your right hand overthwart across his face, and in the throw give your staff a strong swing with your left hand, and loose the same from the staff, so that your staff can the swifter fly across his face and around your head; while your staff is thus flying through his face and around your head, step to him with your left foot forward, and grip under your staff again with your left hand, while your staff is still flying through the air, and strike to the other from your left to your right through the face; also against his staff through where he drives before him, this blow should be performed with both hands, so that you end in the Right Lower Guard after the blow. While your staff thus in this blow falls into the Lower Guard, if he would nimbly thrust at your face (which would be left open by this movement), then step with your right foot quickly on your right side, and thrust in with him at the same time also to his face, so that you have turned the rear part of your staff together with the long edge against his, and pulled your head well away over your staff, so you are defended.</p>
 
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Line 5,196: Line 5,191:
 
<p>In the approach place yourself in the said manner in the Middle Guard to the left side, and step with the left foot behind your right toward him, so that in the movement you turn your back to him. While you thus turn in front of him, he will quickly thrust to your face, meaning to overtake you; then in your backward stepping lift both your hands nimbly upward together with the butt of your staff, outstretched toward his left side, so that the point hangs toward the ground, and as you turn strike his oncoming thrust with your hanging staff from your right out toward your left side, and let the same move through a full swing around your head. While it thus moves through the swing, let go with your left hand (after you have given the staff a strong swing with the same) and strike with one hand a strong swift stroke to his left ear. This is a swift piece which goes well in the first attack; if you provoke his thrust with your turn, then you take his staff out in the time of the turn, and surely hit him, if he has thrust in earnest.</p>
 
<p>In the approach place yourself in the said manner in the Middle Guard to the left side, and step with the left foot behind your right toward him, so that in the movement you turn your back to him. While you thus turn in front of him, he will quickly thrust to your face, meaning to overtake you; then in your backward stepping lift both your hands nimbly upward together with the butt of your staff, outstretched toward his left side, so that the point hangs toward the ground, and as you turn strike his oncoming thrust with your hanging staff from your right out toward your left side, and let the same move through a full swing around your head. While it thus moves through the swing, let go with your left hand (after you have given the staff a strong swing with the same) and strike with one hand a strong swift stroke to his left ear. This is a swift piece which goes well in the first attack; if you provoke his thrust with your turn, then you take his staff out in the time of the turn, and surely hit him, if he has thrust in earnest.</p>
 
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Line 5,219: Line 5,214:
  
 
<p>When you become aware in the pressing out that he is coming on nimbly with his staff, so that you cannot overtake him with the thrust you were taught, then do this: Jerk his staff again on one side as before, and let yourself seem as if you want to thrust as before, but as soon as and while he speeds his staff again toward yours, meaning to parry your thrust, then meanwhile go through under his staff, and with a spring out thrust to his face with great speed and force. This is a swift passage, when you thus unexpectedly jerk someone's staff out, and nimbly go through under, and thrust in on the other side.</p>
 
<p>When you become aware in the pressing out that he is coming on nimbly with his staff, so that you cannot overtake him with the thrust you were taught, then do this: Jerk his staff again on one side as before, and let yourself seem as if you want to thrust as before, but as soon as and while he speeds his staff again toward yours, meaning to parry your thrust, then meanwhile go through under his staff, and with a spring out thrust to his face with great speed and force. This is a swift passage, when you thus unexpectedly jerk someone's staff out, and nimbly go through under, and thrust in on the other side.</p>
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Line 5,227: Line 5,222:
 
<p>In the approach bind from your left hand side, with the outermost part of your staff on the outermost of his, and press his out with a sudden jerk toward his left side, and draw your staff nimbly back again, toward your left around your head. Let go of the staff with your left hand, and strike with one hand strongly from your right overthwart, with a wide step of your right foot through his feet; grip your staff again with your left hand while the same is thus moving through in the stroke, and then strike the other with both hands through to his right shoulder, so that you end in the Right Lower Guard; from this thrust to his face after the manner described above.</p>
 
<p>In the approach bind from your left hand side, with the outermost part of your staff on the outermost of his, and press his out with a sudden jerk toward his left side, and draw your staff nimbly back again, toward your left around your head. Let go of the staff with your left hand, and strike with one hand strongly from your right overthwart, with a wide step of your right foot through his feet; grip your staff again with your left hand while the same is thus moving through in the stroke, and then strike the other with both hands through to his right shoulder, so that you end in the Right Lower Guard; from this thrust to his face after the manner described above.</p>
 
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<p>Do it like this: in the approach bind the tip of your staff with the tip of his; let yourself seem as if you are earnestly looking where or how you want to thrust to his face. As soon as he notices, he will diligently take care on your leaving the bind, that he could nimbly thrust while you leave. When you place yourself earnestly, like you want to thrust, then quickly jerk the butt of your staff upward, and swing the staff back with your left hand toward your left around your head, and thus unexpectedly strike straight from above to his head, and if he would yet thrust under this, then the same does not serve, for then you are too swift with the blow to his head. This and the like pieces have the more part in the Practice, namely that you outrace your opponent with unexpected speed, when he makes the slightest mistake.</p>
 
<p>Do it like this: in the approach bind the tip of your staff with the tip of his; let yourself seem as if you are earnestly looking where or how you want to thrust to his face. As soon as he notices, he will diligently take care on your leaving the bind, that he could nimbly thrust while you leave. When you place yourself earnestly, like you want to thrust, then quickly jerk the butt of your staff upward, and swing the staff back with your left hand toward your left around your head, and thus unexpectedly strike straight from above to his head, and if he would yet thrust under this, then the same does not serve, for then you are too swift with the blow to his head. This and the like pieces have the more part in the Practice, namely that you outrace your opponent with unexpected speed, when he makes the slightest mistake.</p>
 
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<p>Further, when you can reach the tip of his staff with the tip of yours, and he is hard on your staff, the be aware as soon as he wants to press you out to the side with force, then draw back your staff nimbly (while he is pressing out) around your head with both hands, and strike outside over his left arm to his head with a step out. As soon as this blow connects, quickly shift your staff over his near his hands, as you can see shown hereafter in Figure G; when you have thus found and barred his staff, then you may go in and thrust with the butt of your staff, or strike in front of his face with the longer part; if he moves his point up, and works it out under your staff, then follow after from below with thrusting, winding, or pressing.</p>
 
<p>Further, when you can reach the tip of his staff with the tip of yours, and he is hard on your staff, the be aware as soon as he wants to press you out to the side with force, then draw back your staff nimbly (while he is pressing out) around your head with both hands, and strike outside over his left arm to his head with a step out. As soon as this blow connects, quickly shift your staff over his near his hands, as you can see shown hereafter in Figure G; when you have thus found and barred his staff, then you may go in and thrust with the butt of your staff, or strike in front of his face with the longer part; if he moves his point up, and works it out under your staff, then follow after from below with thrusting, winding, or pressing.</p>
 
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<p>Mark diligently, when you have bound with someone from your left side, then diligently observe and feel just as soon as he leaves the bind, to go through below or to work otherwise, then thrust while he is thus leaving, straight ahead to his face.</p>
 
<p>Mark diligently, when you have bound with someone from your left side, then diligently observe and feel just as soon as he leaves the bind, to go through below or to work otherwise, then thrust while he is thus leaving, straight ahead to his face.</p>
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Line 5,292: Line 5,287:
 
| <p>Thus you should mark and be aware of what your opponent wants to fence and drive to you, so that you catch him just in his own technique, as next herefore at this one then inclined true soon after to thrust [???]. Then you must expose yourself cautiously and warily to the same, and place yourself in such a way with the appearance, as resist befalling the approximate and ignorant [???], or you have wasted your ? thrust after with reluctance, so that through this he will be all the more incited to thrust, with which thrust or blow he fails and exposes himself, as close that he so agile hardly against comes up and may recover himself [???], before then you have overtaken him. This will be expanded on further on by example in the halberd.</p>
 
| <p>Thus you should mark and be aware of what your opponent wants to fence and drive to you, so that you catch him just in his own technique, as next herefore at this one then inclined true soon after to thrust [???]. Then you must expose yourself cautiously and warily to the same, and place yourself in such a way with the appearance, as resist befalling the approximate and ignorant [???], or you have wasted your ? thrust after with reluctance, so that through this he will be all the more incited to thrust, with which thrust or blow he fails and exposes himself, as close that he so agile hardly against comes up and may recover himself [???], before then you have overtaken him. This will be expanded on further on by example in the halberd.</p>
 
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Line 5,307: Line 5,302:
 
<p>If you have bound someone ahead from your left against his right, but he stays still and does not work, then step with your rear right foot to your right side, and go with your point hard on his staff through below, and thrust nimbly and unexpectedly from your right over his left arm to his face. In thrusting, let go of your staff with your left hand, and give the right side the thrust, so that you reach in the further. In this thrust turn up your right hand together with the butt of your staff toward your left side, and draw your staff around your head, and in this drawing around spring in nimbly on your left side. Strike thus wickedly to his right shoulder. This blow together with the thrust should be done nimbly one after another and together. Then spring back, so that you may be sure to catch and grip your staff again.</p>
 
<p>If you have bound someone ahead from your left against his right, but he stays still and does not work, then step with your rear right foot to your right side, and go with your point hard on his staff through below, and thrust nimbly and unexpectedly from your right over his left arm to his face. In thrusting, let go of your staff with your left hand, and give the right side the thrust, so that you reach in the further. In this thrust turn up your right hand together with the butt of your staff toward your left side, and draw your staff around your head, and in this drawing around spring in nimbly on your left side. Strike thus wickedly to his right shoulder. This blow together with the thrust should be done nimbly one after another and together. Then spring back, so that you may be sure to catch and grip your staff again.</p>
 
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Line 5,322: Line 5,317:
 
<p><br/>Mark, when you find your opponent in the straight defence in the approach, then place yourself thus also, and let yourself seem by your appearance, as if you wanted first wanted to see how you should fence; when he makes the slightest mistake, step quickly with your right foot out to his left side, and thrust over his left hand (which he has put forward on the staff) straight to his chest, not touching his staff with yours. In this thrust move your right hand well toward your left arm, and on the same inside, and turn your open left hand around upward, so the thrust goes the deeper, and hit surely, as you see set out in the picture on the left side in Figure E.</p>
 
<p><br/>Mark, when you find your opponent in the straight defence in the approach, then place yourself thus also, and let yourself seem by your appearance, as if you wanted first wanted to see how you should fence; when he makes the slightest mistake, step quickly with your right foot out to his left side, and thrust over his left hand (which he has put forward on the staff) straight to his chest, not touching his staff with yours. In this thrust move your right hand well toward your left arm, and on the same inside, and turn your open left hand around upward, so the thrust goes the deeper, and hit surely, as you see set out in the picture on the left side in Figure E.</p>
 
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Line 5,334: Line 5,329:
 
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| <p>At the same time as you make this thrust, lift your staff with both hands, and strike nimbly from above down to his face, and in this blow spring further toward his left side with your right foot.</p>
 
| <p>At the same time as you make this thrust, lift your staff with both hands, and strike nimbly from above down to his face, and in this blow spring further toward his left side with your right foot.</p>
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Line 5,349: Line 5,344:
 
<p>Do it like this: in the approach, as soon as you can reach the tip of his staff with the tip of yours, hold your point straight in front of his face, and turn yourself well on your right side, so that you turn your back to him, and while you turn your back, step with your right foot behind your left toward him, turning completely around on your right with this step, and strike with one hand, that is, around with your right hand, straight down to his head. This blow works very well when you do it right; if he thrusts at you while you are turning, he cannot reach you, because you were bound on his tip, and if he can reach you, to touch your exposed back, you surely hit him when he thrusts; the stroke runs so swiftly, that he cannot deliver any thrust before the same. You may also direct the stroke across from the middle in this turn.</p>
 
<p>Do it like this: in the approach, as soon as you can reach the tip of his staff with the tip of yours, hold your point straight in front of his face, and turn yourself well on your right side, so that you turn your back to him, and while you turn your back, step with your right foot behind your left toward him, turning completely around on your right with this step, and strike with one hand, that is, around with your right hand, straight down to his head. This blow works very well when you do it right; if he thrusts at you while you are turning, he cannot reach you, because you were bound on his tip, and if he can reach you, to touch your exposed back, you surely hit him when he thrusts; the stroke runs so swiftly, that he cannot deliver any thrust before the same. You may also direct the stroke across from the middle in this turn.</p>
 
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Line 5,364: Line 5,359:
 
<p>When you have bound your opponent, or stand before him in the defence, and he doesn't want to work, then thrust earnestly to his face, and look under it diligently; then he is ready to parry and bear off your thrust, so don't complete it, but rather draw it back again quickly through your left hand, so that you have your left hand fully outstretched in front of your face. As you pull back your staff, place yourself with a serious appearance, as if you want to go through below, and thrust on the other side; as you thus distract with looks, you must masterfully raise your lead foot and set it down again, and as you seem to be thrusting on the other side, while he moves out to the side against your thrust to turn the same aside, thrust straight ahead at the same point, that you originally drew back from. This should be done nimbly, and performed earnestly in all circumstances.</p>
 
<p>When you have bound your opponent, or stand before him in the defence, and he doesn't want to work, then thrust earnestly to his face, and look under it diligently; then he is ready to parry and bear off your thrust, so don't complete it, but rather draw it back again quickly through your left hand, so that you have your left hand fully outstretched in front of your face. As you pull back your staff, place yourself with a serious appearance, as if you want to go through below, and thrust on the other side; as you thus distract with looks, you must masterfully raise your lead foot and set it down again, and as you seem to be thrusting on the other side, while he moves out to the side against your thrust to turn the same aside, thrust straight ahead at the same point, that you originally drew back from. This should be done nimbly, and performed earnestly in all circumstances.</p>
 
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<p>If your opponent binds hard on your staff from his left side against your right, and presses hard towards you in the straight defence, so that you may not depart from his staff with any technique, then stay hard with the bind in front of his hand on the staff; press with the point toward his face, so that he is compelled to move up. As soon as he has raised his staff a little, stay with your point on his continually, and wind the butt end over nimbly from your right to his left above his, press it down, and strike him on the head with the fore end (so that your left hand comes over your right), as is shown in the middle of Figure D.</p>
 
<p>If your opponent binds hard on your staff from his left side against your right, and presses hard towards you in the straight defence, so that you may not depart from his staff with any technique, then stay hard with the bind in front of his hand on the staff; press with the point toward his face, so that he is compelled to move up. As soon as he has raised his staff a little, stay with your point on his continually, and wind the butt end over nimbly from your right to his left above his, press it down, and strike him on the head with the fore end (so that your left hand comes over your right), as is shown in the middle of Figure D.</p>
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<p>In the approach bind strongly from your right against his left on his staff, and work with the point again toward his face, so that he is compelled to raise his staff; as soon as and while he is still raising his staff, bend down, and spring toward him under his staff with your right foot, staying throughout continually with your point on his staff, and in this spring go through under his with the butt of your staff, and turn the same over his staff on his right side, so the point comes after, with which strike him on the head, or press down with the butt of your staff (while you have wound over), and tear out with the same, and thrust with the point to his face; but if he presses upward so strongly, that you can't force his staff down with the butt of your own, then wind your point (while you must go up with the butt from the pressing) up from below to his face, near his right arm, while he presses upward. However, if he wants to lift the butt of his staff (while you wind over his staff with the butt of yours) and wind over above, then quickly turn your point from your left against his right over his right arm in around his head, and catch him around the neck with your staff, and jerk him toward you on your left side.</p>
 
<p>In the approach bind strongly from your right against his left on his staff, and work with the point again toward his face, so that he is compelled to raise his staff; as soon as and while he is still raising his staff, bend down, and spring toward him under his staff with your right foot, staying throughout continually with your point on his staff, and in this spring go through under his with the butt of your staff, and turn the same over his staff on his right side, so the point comes after, with which strike him on the head, or press down with the butt of your staff (while you have wound over), and tear out with the same, and thrust with the point to his face; but if he presses upward so strongly, that you can't force his staff down with the butt of your own, then wind your point (while you must go up with the butt from the pressing) up from below to his face, near his right arm, while he presses upward. However, if he wants to lift the butt of his staff (while you wind over his staff with the butt of yours) and wind over above, then quickly turn your point from your left against his right over his right arm in around his head, and catch him around the neck with your staff, and jerk him toward you on your left side.</p>
 
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<p>It often happens that both staves become bound together in the middle; when this happens, stay on his staff with yours, and let go with your left hand; invert it, grab both staves, and go through below with the butt of your staff. Press upward toward you with your right hand, so he must let go, or fall when you step back with your right foot.</p>
 
<p>It often happens that both staves become bound together in the middle; when this happens, stay on his staff with yours, and let go with your left hand; invert it, grab both staves, and go through below with the butt of your staff. Press upward toward you with your right hand, so he must let go, or fall when you step back with your right foot.</p>
 
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| <p>In all fencing observe diligently, that you in no way let yourself be provoked or deceived, and don't thrust a lone thrust expecially the forepart in the before, but if you find your opponent in a guard that gives you an opening, then you should not commit to the same thrust, but rather see if you can provoke him with withdrawn thrusts; afterward you may change through. But if he remains too long in his guard aforesaid, then you can suddenly overtake him, when he makes the slightest mistake. But if you have bound, and may not thrust well to some opening (in the before), put in a thrust hard on his staff, and feel precisely in thrusting, whether he wants to take out or strike out your thrust. As soon as you sense this, go through below with your thrust, and help his staff fully to the side, toward which he has struck out, or thrust in on the other side while he is striking out. But if you sense that he wants to thrust at the same time as you do, then don't move your staff, but rather act subtly and secretly or unnoticed, until he makes a full thrust. As soon as he thrusts, then move out his staff in your thrust, and fully put in your upraised thrust. Thus you should not be moving in all techniques, but rather attend to how he approaches, so you can the more smoothly encounter him.</p>
 
| <p>In all fencing observe diligently, that you in no way let yourself be provoked or deceived, and don't thrust a lone thrust expecially the forepart in the before, but if you find your opponent in a guard that gives you an opening, then you should not commit to the same thrust, but rather see if you can provoke him with withdrawn thrusts; afterward you may change through. But if he remains too long in his guard aforesaid, then you can suddenly overtake him, when he makes the slightest mistake. But if you have bound, and may not thrust well to some opening (in the before), put in a thrust hard on his staff, and feel precisely in thrusting, whether he wants to take out or strike out your thrust. As soon as you sense this, go through below with your thrust, and help his staff fully to the side, toward which he has struck out, or thrust in on the other side while he is striking out. But if you sense that he wants to thrust at the same time as you do, then don't move your staff, but rather act subtly and secretly or unnoticed, until he makes a full thrust. As soon as he thrusts, then move out his staff in your thrust, and fully put in your upraised thrust. Thus you should not be moving in all techniques, but rather attend to how he approaches, so you can the more smoothly encounter him.</p>
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Revision as of 18:40, 27 March 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.