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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
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! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
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<p>Now I come to write of the artful and free Knightly exersize, namely to the Strikes, which is a major Heading in Fencing in that the basics are given here, the number is told, each is described, and how they are executed to the full, will here be noted and told, and from here alone the friendly reader will afterward be reminded, that between the Sword Fighting times, when it was in custom for our forefathers and the ancients, and our time there is a great difference, in that not only was the point used, which is not the custom today, but of old much more of the Sword was used in the strikes, and they fenced sharply with both strikes and stabs, and thus shall I present this and other points of knowledge.</p>
 
<p>Now I come to write of the artful and free Knightly exersize, namely to the Strikes, which is a major Heading in Fencing in that the basics are given here, the number is told, each is described, and how they are executed to the full, will here be noted and told, and from here alone the friendly reader will afterward be reminded, that between the Sword Fighting times, when it was in custom for our forefathers and the ancients, and our time there is a great difference, in that not only was the point used, which is not the custom today, but of old much more of the Sword was used in the strikes, and they fenced sharply with both strikes and stabs, and thus shall I present this and other points of knowledge.</p>
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| <p>However, as of now the Strikes with the Sword belong to two underlying principles, as in the direct and inverted strikes. The Direct strikes are named such as they strike against the opponent with the long edge and outstretched arms. There are four, the Over, Wrathful, Middle and Under Strikes, and from these all the others come forth, and in the world will still be found none conceived as such, and of them not one of these will be feebly grasped and deployed by you. These are named the Lead or Principal Strikes.</p>
 
| <p>However, as of now the Strikes with the Sword belong to two underlying principles, as in the direct and inverted strikes. The Direct strikes are named such as they strike against the opponent with the long edge and outstretched arms. There are four, the Over, Wrathful, Middle and Under Strikes, and from these all the others come forth, and in the world will still be found none conceived as such, and of them not one of these will be feebly grasped and deployed by you. These are named the Lead or Principal Strikes.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/41|2|lbl=Ⅰ.10vb}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/41|2|lbl=Ⅰ.10v.2}}
  
 
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| <p>The inverted strikes are those where in the strike you turn your sword hand around so that you hit the opponent, not with the full or long edge, but somewhat with the short edge, flat, or engage at an angle. Face this with the Slide, Short, Crown, Glance, Arc, Traverse, Bounce, Blind, Wind, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Changer Strikes.</p>
 
| <p>The inverted strikes are those where in the strike you turn your sword hand around so that you hit the opponent, not with the full or long edge, but somewhat with the short edge, flat, or engage at an angle. Face this with the Slide, Short, Crown, Glance, Arc, Traverse, Bounce, Blind, Wind, Knee Hollow, Plunge, and Changer Strikes.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/41|3|lbl=Ⅰ.10vc}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/41|3|lbl=Ⅰ.10v.3}}
  
 
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| <p>Thus you come to the four above cited Strikes, and from there the various strikes are named.</p>
 
| <p>Thus you come to the four above cited Strikes, and from there the various strikes are named.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|1|lbl=Ⅰ.11ra}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|1|lbl=Ⅰ.11r.1}}
  
 
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| <p>Now from these both come five for further reading, as the Master Strikes will be named, not that one can thus fully use the weapon Rightly, and Master this art so soon, but that from them one can Master all proper artful elements which will be acted on from knowing them here, and thus you can Fence properly at need, and become an artfully striking Fencer, who retains all Master principles at the same time, and against whom nothing can be borne. These Strikes are Wrathful, Arc, Thwart, Glancer, and Vertex.</p>
 
| <p>Now from these both come five for further reading, as the Master Strikes will be named, not that one can thus fully use the weapon Rightly, and Master this art so soon, but that from them one can Master all proper artful elements which will be acted on from knowing them here, and thus you can Fence properly at need, and become an artfully striking Fencer, who retains all Master principles at the same time, and against whom nothing can be borne. These Strikes are Wrathful, Arc, Thwart, Glancer, and Vertex.</p>
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| <p>How all these are done I will show you in due order, and firstly speak of the Direct Strikes, of which the first will be the Over Strike.</p>
 
| <p>How all these are done I will show you in due order, and firstly speak of the Direct Strikes, of which the first will be the Over Strike.</p>
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<p>The Over Strike is a strong strike directly from Above, against your opponent’s head or scalp, therefore it is also called Vertex Strike.</p>
 
<p>The Over Strike is a strong strike directly from Above, against your opponent’s head or scalp, therefore it is also called Vertex Strike.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|4|lbl=Ⅰ.11rd}}
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<p>The Wrathful Strike is a serious strike from your Right Shoulder, against your opponent’s left ear, or through his face or chest, consider how it’s done through two lines, with the lines drawn through the upper right and crosswise overtop one another. This is the strongest beyond all others in that all one’s strength and manliness is laid against one’s opponent in fighting and fencing, therefore the ancients also named it Straight Strike or Father Strike. Along the considered lines you can move onwards, etc.</p>
 
<p>The Wrathful Strike is a serious strike from your Right Shoulder, against your opponent’s left ear, or through his face or chest, consider how it’s done through two lines, with the lines drawn through the upper right and crosswise overtop one another. This is the strongest beyond all others in that all one’s strength and manliness is laid against one’s opponent in fighting and fencing, therefore the ancients also named it Straight Strike or Father Strike. Along the considered lines you can move onwards, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/42|5|lbl=Ⅰ.11re}}
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<p>The Middle or Traversing Strike can execute most effects the Wrathful Strike can, the difference is only that while the Wrathful Strike is a forceful high point, the Diagonal Traverse is traverses above, as shown in the Traverse line including both C and G. Such lines are also applicable to Dusack.</p>
 
<p>The Middle or Traversing Strike can execute most effects the Wrathful Strike can, the difference is only that while the Wrathful Strike is a forceful high point, the Diagonal Traverse is traverses above, as shown in the Traverse line including both C and G. Such lines are also applicable to Dusack.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|1|lbl=Ⅰ.11va}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|1|lbl=Ⅰ.11v.1}}
  
 
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<p>This you execute thusly, strike so that you move into the Right Ox (more is said about this in the next chapter) and thus can bring your opponent fencer into range, and step to strike from below traversing above into their left arm, while coming into position with the hilt high above your head, and thus complete. Regarding this, see the figures fighting against the left in the background of illustration B.</p>
 
<p>This you execute thusly, strike so that you move into the Right Ox (more is said about this in the next chapter) and thus can bring your opponent fencer into range, and step to strike from below traversing above into their left arm, while coming into position with the hilt high above your head, and thus complete. Regarding this, see the figures fighting against the left in the background of illustration B.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|2|lbl=Ⅰ.11vb}}
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<p>The Glancing Strike is also a High strike, but has been so named in that one closes with a small glancing blow, which is done thus: put yourself in the Guard of the Roof or Wrath (as shown in the third chapter) with your left foot forward, from which you will be striking, and while striking be sure to wind your short edge against his strike, and hit with inverting hands at the same time as closing with him, step fully with your Right Foot toward his left side, and so quickly take his head, thus have you done it rightly, and will stand as shown by the figures fighting on the left side of illustration G.</p>
 
<p>The Glancing Strike is also a High strike, but has been so named in that one closes with a small glancing blow, which is done thus: put yourself in the Guard of the Roof or Wrath (as shown in the third chapter) with your left foot forward, from which you will be striking, and while striking be sure to wind your short edge against his strike, and hit with inverting hands at the same time as closing with him, step fully with your Right Foot toward his left side, and so quickly take his head, thus have you done it rightly, and will stand as shown by the figures fighting on the left side of illustration G.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|3|lbl=Ⅰ.11vc}}
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/43|3|lbl=Ⅰ.11v.3}}
  
 
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<p>This strike is described thus: stand in the Wrath Guard with your left foot forward, when your opponent strikes, step with your right foot fully away from his strike and against his left side, strike with the long edge and crossed hands against his strike, or between his pommel and blade, diagonally over his hands, and fully overshoot his arms to lay on the blade, as shown in illustration D by the figures on the upper right hand side.</p>
 
<p>This strike is described thus: stand in the Wrath Guard with your left foot forward, when your opponent strikes, step with your right foot fully away from his strike and against his left side, strike with the long edge and crossed hands against his strike, or between his pommel and blade, diagonally over his hands, and fully overshoot his arms to lay on the blade, as shown in illustration D by the figures on the upper right hand side.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/45|1|lbl=Ⅰ.12va}}
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<p>You send yourself into the Thwarter thus: assume the primary stance of Wrathful Guard to the right (as shown in the previous chapter), that is you put your left foot forward and hold your sword over your right shoulder, as if you would strike a wrathful strike, and when your opponent strikes you from the roof or above, strike closely with your short edge, breaking against his strike from below, holding your hilt high above to displace near your head, and strike to close by stepping full onto his Left side, thus displacing and closing against the other as shown by the left background figures of illustration H. This can be executed to the left thus striking his right side with a changed point, in that you will strike against his right by engaging with the long edge.</p>
 
<p>You send yourself into the Thwarter thus: assume the primary stance of Wrathful Guard to the right (as shown in the previous chapter), that is you put your left foot forward and hold your sword over your right shoulder, as if you would strike a wrathful strike, and when your opponent strikes you from the roof or above, strike closely with your short edge, breaking against his strike from below, holding your hilt high above to displace near your head, and strike to close by stepping full onto his Left side, thus displacing and closing against the other as shown by the left background figures of illustration H. This can be executed to the left thus striking his right side with a changed point, in that you will strike against his right by engaging with the long edge.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/45|2|lbl=Ⅰ.12vb}}
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<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
 
<section begin="Kurtzhauw"/>
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<p>This is a secretive attack, and is described thus: when your opponent strikes you from above, stand as if you would respond with a Arc Strike, that is to bind his sword with the half edge, but let it fall and drive through under his sword, strike with the half edge and crossed arms over his right arm to hit his head, thus you have closed off his sword with the long edge, and accomplished the Short Strike, and stand as is shown by the smaller figure (mid background) on the left of illustration B fighting against the right.</p>
 
<p>This is a secretive attack, and is described thus: when your opponent strikes you from above, stand as if you would respond with a Arc Strike, that is to bind his sword with the half edge, but let it fall and drive through under his sword, strike with the half edge and crossed arms over his right arm to hit his head, thus you have closed off his sword with the long edge, and accomplished the Short Strike, and stand as is shown by the smaller figure (mid background) on the left of illustration B fighting against the right.</p>
 
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<section end="Kurtzhauw"/> <section begin="Glützhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kurtzhauw"/> <section begin="Glützhauw"/>
 
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<p>The Slide Strike is described as follows: when you are attacked from above, hit with even or free hands against his strike, aiming at his upper left opening, let your blade’s midsection ride up his blade so that the short edge will swing over his hands and hit his head.</p>
 
<p>The Slide Strike is described as follows: when you are attacked from above, hit with even or free hands against his strike, aiming at his upper left opening, let your blade’s midsection ride up his blade so that the short edge will swing over his hands and hit his head.</p>
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<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
<section end="Glützhauw"/><section begin="Prellhauw"/>
 
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<p>This one is twofold, one the single, the other one named the double. The single is made thus: when your adversary strikes at you from above, meet his strike with a Zwerch, as soon as it connects, twitch the sword around the head, and strike from your left with the outward flat towards his ear, as shown by the large figures on the right hand side of Illustration K, so that the sword bounces back again, thus twitch it during the rebounding swing back around the head again, strike with the Zwerch towards the left, thus it is completed.</p>
 
<p>This one is twofold, one the single, the other one named the double. The single is made thus: when your adversary strikes at you from above, meet his strike with a Zwerch, as soon as it connects, twitch the sword around the head, and strike from your left with the outward flat towards his ear, as shown by the large figures on the right hand side of Illustration K, so that the sword bounces back again, thus twitch it during the rebounding swing back around the head again, strike with the Zwerch towards the left, thus it is completed.</p>
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword I.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| <p>Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.</p>
 
| <p>Do the double thus: just as your adversary brings his sword in the air to work against you while closing in, place yourself in the right Ochs, twitch your sword around your head, and strike with the inward flat strongly against his blade from your right side so that your pommel touches your forearm during the strike, as it is depicted in the large picture in Illustration I, and can be seen on the left hand side. However, while striking step well around towards his left with your right foot, and as soon as it hits or connects, pull it upwards and wrench out simultaneously towards your left side and nimbly strike from the outside with inverted hands again towards the same opening, that is with the inverted flat when it strongly rebounds in a ricochet motion, thus you have done it right.</p>
 
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<section end="Prellhauw"/><section begin="Blendthauw"/>
 
<section end="Prellhauw"/><section begin="Blendthauw"/>
 
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<p>Bind your opponent’s sword from your right side, wind through in the clash against his left side with your hilt or haft below, when your opponent tries to swipe away the winding, quickly move the weak with crossed hands from your right toward his left against his head, that is the forward point, wind your hands through again or twist out to your left with the half edge. Thus you have fully executed the Blind Strike, which can be made in many ways and from there further on in places.</p>
 
<p>Bind your opponent’s sword from your right side, wind through in the clash against his left side with your hilt or haft below, when your opponent tries to swipe away the winding, quickly move the weak with crossed hands from your right toward his left against his head, that is the forward point, wind your hands through again or twist out to your left with the half edge. Thus you have fully executed the Blind Strike, which can be made in many ways and from there further on in places.</p>
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<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
<section end="Blendthauw"/><section begin="Windthauw"/>
 
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<p>The Wound Strike is described as follows: if your opponent strikes from above, then strike against his sword with crossed hands from the left and below, so that your pommel sits under your right arm, and thus quick to glide, step strongly from him from your left side with your left foot, swing your sword’s pommel out farther in an arc toward your left side so that the swing moves your long edge over his right arm behind his pommel or hits atop his right arm, as is shown by the figure in the right side foreground of illustration H, and closely thereafter your sword flies out from close to your side, and again strikes against the hands through the cross, so it is done.</p>
 
<p>The Wound Strike is described as follows: if your opponent strikes from above, then strike against his sword with crossed hands from the left and below, so that your pommel sits under your right arm, and thus quick to glide, step strongly from him from your left side with your left foot, swing your sword’s pommel out farther in an arc toward your left side so that the swing moves your long edge over his right arm behind his pommel or hits atop his right arm, as is shown by the figure in the right side foreground of illustration H, and closely thereafter your sword flies out from close to your side, and again strikes against the hands through the cross, so it is done.</p>
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<section end="Windthauw"/><section begin="Kronhauw"/>
 
<section end="Windthauw"/><section begin="Kronhauw"/>
 
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<p>This you hold thus: when you stand in the Plough or in a similar stance (which are discussed in an earlier chapter) which allow stabs from below, and your opponent strikes at you from above, then drive above you with a high traversing cross, intercept his strike above on your riccasso or quillons, and as soon as he slides, bring your pommel up high and strike with the half edge behind his blade onto his head, thus you have rightly executed the Crown Strike.</p>
 
<p>This you hold thus: when you stand in the Plough or in a similar stance (which are discussed in an earlier chapter) which allow stabs from below, and your opponent strikes at you from above, then drive above you with a high traversing cross, intercept his strike above on your riccasso or quillons, and as soon as he slides, bring your pommel up high and strike with the half edge behind his blade onto his head, thus you have rightly executed the Crown Strike.</p>
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<section end="Kronhauw"/><section begin="Kniechelhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kronhauw"/><section begin="Kniechelhauw"/>
 
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<p>This strike takes its name from the joint against which it is tried, and is completed thus: when at first you hold your hands high above your head, and your opponent is moving under his sword so his head is held between both arms, then strike with a traversing strike under his sword’s pommel, with a view to his knuckles or to the joints between hand and arm. If he holds his hands much too high, then strike with a rising traverse Strike from below up against the knob of his elbows, thus is it completed.</p>
 
<p>This strike takes its name from the joint against which it is tried, and is completed thus: when at first you hold your hands high above your head, and your opponent is moving under his sword so his head is held between both arms, then strike with a traversing strike under his sword’s pommel, with a view to his knuckles or to the joints between hand and arm. If he holds his hands much too high, then strike with a rising traverse Strike from below up against the knob of his elbows, thus is it completed.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|1|lbl=Ⅰ.14va}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|1|lbl=Ⅰ.14v.1}}
 
<section end="Kniechelhauw"/><section begin="Sturzhauw"/>
 
<section end="Kniechelhauw"/><section begin="Sturzhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
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<p>Although this strike is an Over Strike, be aware that between one and the other lies a minor difference, from which comes this strike’s name of Plunge Strike, that one strikes through by plungeing from above, and that the point comes against one’s opponent’s face from the Ox, and can thus be executed from the start or pre-fencing.</p>
 
<p>Although this strike is an Over Strike, be aware that between one and the other lies a minor difference, from which comes this strike’s name of Plunge Strike, that one strikes through by plungeing from above, and that the point comes against one’s opponent’s face from the Ox, and can thus be executed from the start or pre-fencing.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|2|lbl=Ⅰ.14vb}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|2|lbl=Ⅰ.14v.2}}
 
<section end="Sturzhauw"/><section begin="Wechselhauw"/>
 
<section end="Sturzhauw"/><section begin="Wechselhauw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>The Change Strike is nothing other than changing from one side to the other, from above to below and back again, before striking your opponent, thus make it so.</p>
 
<p>The Change Strike is nothing other than changing from one side to the other, from above to below and back again, before striking your opponent, thus make it so.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|3|lbl=Ⅰ.14vc}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|3|lbl=Ⅰ.14v.3}}
 
<section end="Wechselhauw"/><section begin="Schneller"/>
 
<section end="Wechselhauw"/><section begin="Schneller"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>Rusher or twitch-hit(?) is basically a thing which is actually not a strike, but if the strike should be rushed it will be completed in the middle or full work when one has engaged, namely from above or on both sides or from below against your opponent with the flat or outer part of the blade, let the weapon snatch or rush inward in a swing over or under his blade.</p>
 
<p>Rusher or twitch-hit(?) is basically a thing which is actually not a strike, but if the strike should be rushed it will be completed in the middle or full work when one has engaged, namely from above or on both sides or from below against your opponent with the flat or outer part of the blade, let the weapon snatch or rush inward in a swing over or under his blade.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|4|lbl=Ⅰ.14vd}}  
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|4|lbl=Ⅰ.14v.4}}  
 
<section end="Schneller"/>
 
<section end="Schneller"/>
 
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+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/49|5|lbl=Ⅰ.14v.5|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|1|lbl=Ⅰ.15r.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|2|lbl=Ⅰ.15rb}}
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|2|lbl=Ⅰ.15r.2}}
  
 
|}
 
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<p>Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.</p>
 
<p>Fencing is based on two prerequisite parts, namely first on the Strikes which you initially put against your opponent, with the other being displacement, which is how you judge and work off of your opponent’s Strikes, and you do not do this weakly. How you accomplish the Strikes and the elements of striving has already been sufficiently clarified, because displacing, or how one properly meets every opposing strike with your weapon and therewith put them away at need so as not to have your body injured, cannot be learned without first learning the Strikes. Because you have now learned the Strikes you can approach the subject of how you displace those Strikes, and come to learn and understand these just as the Strikes have now been heeded and cannot be dismissed, and will be solidified from noting and treating the basics with special care. Be first aware that the parries are twofold, the first is without any particular advantage and is resorted to only for blocking parries from which you cannot do more with your weapon in that you oppose your opponent’s strike to avoid being damaged, but then seek not to damage him, but only to withdraw as you wish without being injured by him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|3|lbl=Ⅰ.15rc|p=1}} [XVv] hauwen bistu zugleich auch wie du die Häuw abtragen solt / gelert und underricht worden / dises ob es wol mit den Häuwen wie jetzt gehört / nit kann abgesondert werden / will doch von nöten sein / hie von insonderheit mit underschiedlicher theilung zuhandlen. Merck derwegen anfenglich das des Versetzens zweyerley ist / das erste ist da du ohn allen sondern vortheil / gemeniglich nur aus forcht versetzest / in welchem du nichts anders thust / dann mit deinem Wehr / so du deinem gegenfechter entgegen heltst die streich die von im beschehen aufffahest / auch nit begerest ihn zu beschedigen / allein benüget an dem / wie du ohn schaden von ihm abziehen mögest.
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/50|3|lbl=Ⅰ.15r.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/51|1|lbl=Ⅰ.15v.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When you are forced to these parries with force and strong bearing, see that you steady yourself by stepping back, and thus be able to come into the “Before” again with advantage from the parry, to this Liechtenauer did speak.  
+
| <p>When you are forced to these parries with force and strong bearing, see that you steady yourself by stepping back, and thus be able to come into the “Before” again with advantage from the parry, to this Liechtenauer did speak.</p>
  
:''Before displacing guard yourself.<br/>Place yourself for advantage.''
+
:Before displacing guard yourself.<br/>Place yourself for advantage.
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/51|2|lbl=Ⅰ.15v.2}}
  
With which he didn’t completely warn against parrying, namely that you should teach only strikes and how to damage, as was told above. When you will succeed from displacing, it does much, thus you should displace stoutly. Thus it is used not only to return strikes, on the other hand it also keeps an eye on preventing his strikes from moving in closely, so that no more fencing can then be built or similarly be attempted without problem.
+
|-
| Wenn du aber zu disem versetzen mit gewalt unnd ubereilen getrungen wurdest / so sihe doch das du dich mit abtritten endtledigest / und mit vortheil zum Vor wider kommen mögest / Von dieser versatzung nun / thut auch Lichtenawer meldung da er spricht.
+
|
 
+
| <p>With which he didn’t completely warn against parrying, namely that you should teach only strikes and how to damage, as was told above. When you will succeed from displacing, it does much, thus you should displace stoutly. Thus it is used not only to return strikes, on the other hand it also keeps an eye on preventing his strikes from moving in closely, so that no more fencing can then be built or similarly be attempted without problem.</p>
:''Vor versetzen hüt dich /<br/>Geschichts dir not es mühet dich.''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/51|3|lbl=Ⅰ.15v.3}}
 
 
Mit welchem er das versetzen darumb nit gar will verbieten / nemlich das du nichts anders dann zuhauwen lehren solt / dan wie es dein schad / wie droben gehört / wann du dich auff das versetzen wolltest gewehnen / dieweil es an dem zuvil / so du zu versetzen gedrungen wurdest / Also ist es nicht nutz so du mit streichen uberbolderst / gleichfals auch hingegen unbedacht gleichsam mit zugethanen augen hinwider mit seinen streichen zuglich hinein Hauwen wolltest / welches dann keinem Fechten / sonder vil mehr einem unbesunnenen Bawren getrösch gleichförmig.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| However, to be more useful I will with one stroke put forward Strikes and Displacing here, and only teach you how you will need to displace such strikes, which also need to be shown as two points. First how you will intercept and put away your opponent’s strike, or set it aside in one blow, then second when you meet his advancing weapon and rush in with one blow to his body.
+
| <p>However, to be more useful I will with one stroke put forward Strikes and Displacing here, and only teach you how you will need to displace such strikes, which also need to be shown as two points. First how you will intercept and put away your opponent’s strike, or set it aside in one blow, then second when you meet his advancing weapon and rush in with one blow to his body.</p>
| Aber umb mehrer nutz willens / will ichs Hauwen und versetzen so mit einem streich geschicht alhie abtheilen / und dich lehren allein wie du solche Häuw zu versatzung brauchen solt / welches dann auch auff zweierley weiß mag beschehen / Erstlich da du deines gegenparts streich zuvor abtregst / oder mit einem Hauw abweisest / darnach wenn du im die vorwehr genommen / mit einem Hauw seinem leib zueilest.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/51|4|lbl=Ⅰ.15v.4}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The second Art of displacing is when you parry and injure your opponent with one strike, which the ancients undertook with special praise, from which these spoken words grew: a proper fencer parries not, as his opponent strikes so he too strikes, as his opponent steps so he too steps, as his opponent stabs so he too stabs.
+
| <p>The second Art of displacing is when you parry and injure your opponent with one strike, which the ancients undertook with special praise, from which these spoken words grew: a proper fencer parries not, as his opponent strikes so he too strikes, as his opponent steps so he too steps, as his opponent stabs so he too stabs.</p>
| '''[XVIr]''' Die ander Art zuversetzen ist / da du dein widerpart in einem streich zuglich versetzest und verletzest / welches die alten fürnemlich wie den billich loben / daher das sprichwort erwachsen / ein rechter Fechter versetzet nicht / sonder Hauwet man so Hauwet er auch / trit man so trit er auch / sticht man so sticht er auch.  
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/52|1|lbl=Ⅰ.16r.1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Of the first shall you now know, that the Oberhau impairs all other strikes as in the Wrath, Middle or Diagonal, and Under Strike, from above it blocks down below you, from this know when to spring against his strikes, and close to his strikes which he releases with strength so that you then rightly engage, his weapon thus weakened that you then can strike another full to his body before he can rightly take it. As the Oberhau blocks all secondary strikes down from above, so will it drive off all from the Wrath or Diagonal strike, and thus it also takes the Under with strong placing, and be there with help from stepping out with the Oberhau above one’s self.
+
| <p>Of the first shall you now know, that the Oberhau impairs all other strikes as in the Wrath, Middle or Diagonal, and Under Strike, from above it blocks down below you, from this know when to spring against his strikes, and close to his strikes which he releases with strength so that you then rightly engage, his weapon thus weakened that you then can strike another full to his body before he can rightly take it. As the Oberhau blocks all secondary strikes down from above, so will it drive off all from the Wrath or Diagonal strike, and thus it also takes the Under with strong placing, and be there with help from stepping out with the Oberhau above one’s self.</p>
| Von ersten soltu nun wissen / das der Oberhauw alle andere Häuw als den Zorn / Mittel / oder Uberzwerch unnd Underhauw / von Oben undersich dempffet / auff diese weiß wann du ihm auß seinem Hauw springest / und zugleich auff seinen Hauw in dem er herfleucht mit sterck Hauwest / damit du ihm so du anders recht antroffen / sein Wehr dermassen schwechst / das du den andern wol zu seinem leib Hauwen kanst / ehe er sich recht erholet. Wie nun der Oberhauw die andern streich alle von Oben nider dempfft / so würdt er von dem Zorn oder Uberzwerchhauw abgetriben / und nimpt auch der Under so er mit sterck geschicht / unnd dem mit außtretten geholffen wirdt / die Oberhäuw ubersich aus.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/52|2|lbl=Ⅰ.16r.2}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When however two similar strikes come together thus with your orderly stepping, in that you step a little before or after the other, so that it’s placed in an eyeblink, then you bring up your displacement. This displacement is brought on with the principal and direct strikes, the other displacement however is when you closely displace and engage, then hit with the countering strikes, as in the Glance, Slide, Crown and Traverse strikes, and with them then complete, thus have you heard above about clearing every strike.
+
| <p>When however two similar strikes come together thus with your orderly stepping, in that you step a little before or after the other, so that it’s placed in an eyeblink, then you bring up your displacement. This displacement is brought on with the principal and direct strikes, the other displacement however is when you closely displace and engage, then hit with the countering strikes, as in the Glance, Slide, Crown and Traverse strikes, and with them then complete, thus have you heard above about clearing every strike.</p>
| Wo aber zwen gleicher häuw mit ihren zugeordneten tritten also zusamen geschehen / das ein trit ein wenig vor oder nach dem andern / wie das auch augenblicks geschicht / so bringen sie ihre versatzung mit / diese versatzung aber ist begriffen in den ersten und geraden Häuwen / die ander versatzung aber ist / da du zugleich versetzest und triffst / geschicht mit den verkehrten häuwen als den Schielhauw / Glütz / Kron / unnd Zwirchhauw / wie solches denn volbracht / hastu Oben bey erklerung jeden Hauwes gehört.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/52|3|lbl=Ⅰ.16r.3}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Then such countering strikes are taken onward from there as foundations, so that with close displacement comes hitting. However, because I should not backtrack, but direct you to more understanding and knowledge, I will give an example of displacing with the Zwerchhau.
+
| <p>Then such countering strikes are taken onward from there as foundations, so that with close displacement comes hitting. However, because I should not backtrack, but direct you to more understanding and knowledge, I will give an example of displacing with the Zwerchhau.</p>
| Dann solche verkehrte Häuw sind fürnemlich darzu erfunden / das damit zugleich versetzt und getroffen wirdt. Aber damit ich nichts hindergehe / so du zu mehrerm verstand und underweisung möchte gerathen / will ich ein Exempel des versetzens mit dem Zwirchhauw geben.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/52|4|lbl=Ⅰ.16r.4}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Place yourself into the Wrathful Guard, if you are then struck from above, then step with the right foot forward against your opponent’s side, and strike with a traverse to that side, short cut a high traverse to close in with it, thus that you take his strike onto the strong of your blade, catching it near your quillons and, with the farther end of your sword, hit his left ear, thus have you thus closely displaced and hit with a second.
+
| <p>Place yourself into the Wrathful Guard, if you are then struck from above, then step with the right foot forward against your opponent’s side, and strike with a traverse to that side, short cut a high traverse to close in with it, thus that you take his strike onto the strong of your blade, catching it near your quillons and, with the farther end of your sword, hit his left ear, thus have you thus closely displaced and hit with a second.</p>
| '''[XVIv]''' Schick dich in die Zornhut / wirt denn auff dich von Oben her gehauwen / so trit mit dem Rechten fuß gegen deines widerparts seiten / und Hauw mit einer Zwirch das sit / kurtzer schneid uberzwerch zu gleich mit hinein / also das du sein Hauw auff die sterck deiner klingen / nahe bey deiner Kreutzstangen auffangest / und mit dem eussern theil deines Schwerdts sein Linck Ohr treffest / so hastu denn zugleich versetzet und getroffen mit einander.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/53|1|lbl=Ⅰ.16v.1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| The other strikes, which still can be hit with further displacement, as in with the Short Strike and feinting etc. will not be reckoned into fencing, especially since only accident or chances will be given that way, and One thus leads one on to provoke, operating wrathfully, and drive from one’s advantage, which often times cannot be done without danger, and so because of this no other displacement will be shown.
+
| <p>The other strikes, which still can be hit with further displacement, as in with the Short Strike and feinting etc. will not be reckoned into fencing, especially since only accident or chances will be given that way, and One thus leads one on to provoke, operating wrathfully, and drive from one’s advantage, which often times cannot be done without danger, and so because of this no other displacement will be shown.</p>
| Was die andere Häuw mit welchen weder versetzt noch troffen wirt / als da ist der Kurtzhauw und Feler etc. werden eigentlich dem Fechten nit zugerechnet / sonder nur per accidens oder zufelliger weiß zugegeben / den Mann damit zuverfüren anzureitzen / zornig zumachen / und aus seinem vortheil zutreiben / welches denn offtermals nicht ohn gefahr beschicht / kann derwegen damit kein versatzung auch nit beschehen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/53|2|lbl=Ⅰ.16v.2}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Handwork'''
+
| <p>'''Handwork'''</p>
All in the first part of fencing up until now, both the Stances and Strikes, were sufficiently and properly done, and from thus we come ahead, that you come to your opponent as equals under the sword, and so first push one’s self to strive seriously, so that you drive against him accurately and forcefully into the Middle work such as Misleading, Following After, Changing, Doubling, Hitting After, setting the Prize thus as the goal all Fencers work toward and wish to attain and keep with quick work.
+
 
| '''Handtarbeit.'''
+
<p>All in the first part of fencing up until now, both the Stances and Strikes, were sufficiently and properly done, and from thus we come ahead, that you come to your opponent as equals under the sword, and so first push one’s self to strive seriously, so that you drive against him accurately and forcefully into the Middle work such as Misleading, Following After, Changing, Doubling, Hitting After, setting the Prize thus as the goal all Fencers work toward and wish to attain and keep with quick work.</p>
NAchdem bißher im ersten stuck des Fechtens / beide von den Legern unnd Häuwen gnugsamer bericht gethan / und die also ferr kommen / das du dem Mann durch dieselben under das Schwerdt kommen / so erhebt sich erst der Rechte ernst und streit / wie du nemlich mit allerley Mittel arbeit als Verführen / Nachreißen / Wechseln / Doplieren / Nachtrucken / ihn dermaßen treibest / engstigest und zwingest / damit du den Preiß so als ein ziel dahin alle Fechter begeren / gesteckt / mit geschwinder arbeyt erreichen unnd erhalten mögest.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/53|3|lbl=Ⅰ.16v.3}}
  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Because it doesn’t start off fully and immediately, where you neither close nor safely attack, then from there on the largest art lies, which is fully grasped here in this chapter of handwork. Since similar things must happen in various ways, on this you’ll have advice in every special word and way, which will be through lessons, and from there through demonstration you shall fully draw clearly and rightly how it is done and understood.
+
| <p>Because it doesn’t start off fully and immediately, where you neither close nor safely attack, then from there on the largest art lies, which is fully grasped here in this chapter of handwork. Since similar things must happen in various ways, on this you’ll have advice in every special word and way, which will be through lessons, and from there through demonstration you shall fully draw clearly and rightly how it is done and understood.</p>
| Denn es mit nichten gnug wol und recht haben anfangen / wo du nit gleichfals auch fürsichtiglich nachtruckest / daran dann die gröste kunst gelegen / und alles hie in diesem Capitel der Handtarbeit begriffen. Dieweil aber dasselbig auff mancherley art geschehen muß / deren jeder sein sonderlich wort und art zu reden hat / will von nöten sein / von demselben was sie seyen / wie sie volzogen werden sollen / klerlich bericht zuthun und zuverstendigen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/53|4|lbl=Ⅰ.16v.4}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword D.jpg|center|400px]]
| And now stands the whole Handwork applied in binding or staying, Travelling After, Cutting, Chopping Down, Walking Around, Misleading, Flowing Off, Putting Away, Displacing, Twitching, Doubling, Overturning, Capturing, Avoiding, Circling, Channeling, Winding, Winding Through, Changing, Changing Through, Cutting Away, Hand Punching, Shooting Ahead, Hanging, Moving Out, Blocking, Adjusting, Grappling, Closing, etc.
+
| <p>And now stands the whole Handwork applied in binding or staying, Travelling After, Cutting, Chopping Down, Walking Around, Misleading, Flowing Off, Putting Away, Displacing, Twitching, Doubling, Overturning, Capturing, Avoiding, Circling, Channeling, Winding, Winding Through, Changing, Changing Through, Cutting Away, Hand Punching, Shooting Ahead, Hanging, Moving Out, Blocking, Adjusting, Grappling, Closing, etc.</p>
 
| '''[XVIIrv]''' Und steht zwar die ganze Handtarbeit vornemlich im Binden oder bleiben / Nachreisen / Schneiden / Umbschlagen / Umblauffen / Verfüren / Verfliigen / Absetzen / Versetzen / Zucken / Doplieren / Verkehren / Schnappen / Felen / Zirckeln / Rinden / Winden / Durchwinden / Wechseln / Durchwechseln / Abschneiden / Hendtrucken / Vorschieben / Hengen / Außreissen / Sperren / Verstellen / Übergreiffen / Einlauffen / rc.
 
| '''[XVIIrv]''' Und steht zwar die ganze Handtarbeit vornemlich im Binden oder bleiben / Nachreisen / Schneiden / Umbschlagen / Umblauffen / Verfüren / Verfliigen / Absetzen / Versetzen / Zucken / Doplieren / Verkehren / Schnappen / Felen / Zirckeln / Rinden / Winden / Durchwinden / Wechseln / Durchwechseln / Abschneiden / Hendtrucken / Vorschieben / Hengen / Außreissen / Sperren / Verstellen / Übergreiffen / Einlauffen / rc.
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Binding, Staying, Feeling.'''
+
| <p>'''Binding, Staying, Feeling.'''</p>
These are names for when the swords are in contact with each other. Staying is two moded, firstly when the swords stop each other, watch what One wants to fence with then and where you can attack your opponent if you will. Then there is the other with which one sends strikes, when you set yourself as if you sought to recover from a strike, only to slash quickly and come inward again with the short edge, thus back to the Before to strike with the long edge. Now mark the word “feeling” which means so much, as it therewith sends or finds, you will become aware how hard or soft on your sword he is, etc.
+
 
 +
<p>These are names for when the swords are in contact with each other. Staying is two moded, firstly when the swords stop each other, watch what One wants to fence with then and where you can attack your opponent if you will. Then there is the other with which one sends strikes, when you set yourself as if you sought to recover from a strike, only to slash quickly and come inward again with the short edge, thus back to the Before to strike with the long edge. Now mark the word “feeling” which means so much, as it therewith sends or finds, you will become aware how hard or soft on your sword he is, etc.</p>
 
| '''Anbinden / Bleiben / Fülen.'''
 
| '''Anbinden / Bleiben / Fülen.'''
 
HEist wann die Schwerdter an einander Rüren / Bleiben ist zweyerley / Erstlich wan die Schwerdter an einander gehalten / zusehen was der Mann will fechten / unnd wo er seinen gegenman anzugreiffen in willens. Darnach zum andern / welches mit streichen geschicht / wenn du dich stellest / als ob du zuckest einen streich zuerholen / und nur schlechts widerumb umbschnelst / und mit kurtzer schneid wider dahinein kompst / dahin du zuvor mit Langer schneid gehauwen. Hie merck das wort fülen welches soviel heist / als brüffen oder empfinden / damit du gewahr werden magst / ob er mit seinem Band hert oder weich an deinem Schwerdt ist / etc.
 
HEist wann die Schwerdter an einander Rüren / Bleiben ist zweyerley / Erstlich wan die Schwerdter an einander gehalten / zusehen was der Mann will fechten / unnd wo er seinen gegenman anzugreiffen in willens. Darnach zum andern / welches mit streichen geschicht / wenn du dich stellest / als ob du zuckest einen streich zuerholen / und nur schlechts widerumb umbschnelst / und mit kurtzer schneid wider dahinein kompst / dahin du zuvor mit Langer schneid gehauwen. Hie merck das wort fülen welches soviel heist / als brüffen oder empfinden / damit du gewahr werden magst / ob er mit seinem Band hert oder weich an deinem Schwerdt ist / etc.
Line 952: Line 952:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Travelling After'''
+
| <p>'''Travelling After'''</p>
This is an especially good handwork, and therein the need and will to know will be raised if you want to rise and become a Master at low cost, thus conduct yourself in Travelling After: When your opponent starts to move his sword above or below himself so as to prepare to strike, you rush at his targets and thus preemptively intercept his Strike, which then can be joined against as you come to want or need, with this one fences and sweeps away with your strike. Since you soon require better understanding, I will clarify this to you with an example.
+
 
 +
<p>This is an especially good handwork, and therein the need and will to know will be raised if you want to rise and become a Master at low cost, thus conduct yourself in Travelling After: When your opponent starts to move his sword above or below himself so as to prepare to strike, you rush at his targets and thus preemptively intercept his Strike, which then can be joined against as you come to want or need, with this one fences and sweeps away with your strike. Since you soon require better understanding, I will clarify this to you with an example.</p>
 
| '''Nachreisen.'''
 
| '''Nachreisen.'''
 
DIß ist ein sonder gut Handtarbeit / und darin wol geübt und das wol weiß zu brauchen / mag billich ein Meister gelobt werden / und helt sich mit dem Nachreisen also / Wann du (so dein gegenfechter entweders mit seinem Wehr zu hoch uber oder undersich / oder zu weit neben aus Hauwet) ihm zur Blösse nacheilest / unnd also sein Hauw zuvolfüren hinderst / welches denn füglich kann und mag gegen die gebraucht werden / so mit ihren häuwen weit schweiffig umb sich fechten / solches damit du es desto baß verstehen mögest / will ich dirs mit disem Exempel erkleren.
 
DIß ist ein sonder gut Handtarbeit / und darin wol geübt und das wol weiß zu brauchen / mag billich ein Meister gelobt werden / und helt sich mit dem Nachreisen also / Wann du (so dein gegenfechter entweders mit seinem Wehr zu hoch uber oder undersich / oder zu weit neben aus Hauwet) ihm zur Blösse nacheilest / unnd also sein Hauw zuvolfüren hinderst / welches denn füglich kann und mag gegen die gebraucht werden / so mit ihren häuwen weit schweiffig umb sich fechten / solches damit du es desto baß verstehen mögest / will ich dirs mit disem Exempel erkleren.
Line 959: Line 960:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When one fences against you, take on whatever part his sword takes, if leading first in the right Ox, that is in the high right quarter, thus you shall take off as soon as he changes his sword from there to the other side or off to seek a strike, move similarly and strike after it with cunning, and of course you’ll need to pick a strike and target, against which you close and soon you’ll want your displacement. However if he fences out of the Low Guard, thus mark that as soon as he drives out, (he fences from either left or right side), follow cunningly under his sword from below with the long edge and strike the next opening.
+
| <p>When one fences against you, take on whatever part his sword takes, if leading first in the right Ox, that is in the high right quarter, thus you shall take off as soon as he changes his sword from there to the other side or off to seek a strike, move similarly and strike after it with cunning, and of course you’ll need to pick a strike and target, against which you close and soon you’ll want your displacement. However if he fences out of the Low Guard, thus mark that as soon as he drives out, (he fences from either left or right side), follow cunningly under his sword from below with the long edge and strike the next opening.</p>
 
| Wann einer gegen dir Fechtet / so nim war in welchem theil er sein Schwerdt führet / fürt ers dann im rechten Ochsen / das ist im rechten Obern quatier / so soltu als bald unnd in dem er sein Schwerdt von dannen auff die ander seiten zu Wechseln abnimpt / oder nur zum streich auffzeucht / daselbs behendiglich und mit list hinein '''[XVIIIr]''' / und dich doch solcher häuw und stuck gebrauchen / auß welchn du gleich mit und als bald dein versatzung haben magst / Ficht er aber aus der Underhuten / so merck das du ihm (er Fecht von der Lincken oder Rechten seiten) als bald und in dem er aufffehrt / underhalb seinem Schwerdt listiglich mit der Langschneid nachfolgest / und der nechsten Blöß zu streichest.  
 
| Wann einer gegen dir Fechtet / so nim war in welchem theil er sein Schwerdt führet / fürt ers dann im rechten Ochsen / das ist im rechten Obern quatier / so soltu als bald unnd in dem er sein Schwerdt von dannen auff die ander seiten zu Wechseln abnimpt / oder nur zum streich auffzeucht / daselbs behendiglich und mit list hinein '''[XVIIIr]''' / und dich doch solcher häuw und stuck gebrauchen / auß welchn du gleich mit und als bald dein versatzung haben magst / Ficht er aber aus der Underhuten / so merck das du ihm (er Fecht von der Lincken oder Rechten seiten) als bald und in dem er aufffehrt / underhalb seinem Schwerdt listiglich mit der Langschneid nachfolgest / und der nechsten Blöß zu streichest.  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Slicing'''
+
| <p>'''Slicing'''</p>
Is a fundamental element of proper handwork, when you rush from your opponent with quick and agile blows, you can block and impede him better with no other move than with the slice, which you, though you will treasure it in all instances as special as here, will hold in reserve. You must however complete the slices thus: after you entangle your opponent’s sword with the bind, you shall strive thereon, feel if he would withdraw or flow off from the bind, as soon as he flows off, drive against him with the long edge on his arm, thrust the strong or quillons from you in the effort, let fly, and as he himself seeks to retrieve, strike then to the next opening.
+
 
 +
<p>Is a fundamental element of proper handwork, when you rush from your opponent with quick and agile blows, you can block and impede him better with no other move than with the slice, which you, though you will treasure it in all instances as special as here, will hold in reserve. You must however complete the slices thus: after you entangle your opponent’s sword with the bind, you shall strive thereon, feel if he would withdraw or flow off from the bind, as soon as he flows off, drive against him with the long edge on his arm, thrust the strong or quillons from you in the effort, let fly, and as he himself seeks to retrieve, strike then to the next opening.</p>
 
| '''Schneiden.'''
 
| '''Schneiden.'''
 
ISt under der Handarbeit auch der Rechten kern stuck eines / dann so du von deinem gegenpart mit behenden und geschwinden stucken ubereilet / kanstu ihn mit keinem andern stuck besser stecken und hindern / dann mit dem schnit / welches du dir dann auch in allen stucken als ein sonders hiezu erfunden kleinot / im vorrath behalten solt / Du must aber das Schneiden also volbringen / nach dem du deines widerparts Schwerdt mit dem Band empfangen / soltu daran verharren / zufülen ob er vom Bandt abgehn oder umbschlagen wolt / als bald er umbschlegt / so fahr ihm mit der Langen schneiden auff sein Arm nach / stoß ihn mit der sterck oder schilt im ruck von dir / laß fliegen / und ehe er sich erholen mag / so hauwe der nechsten Blössen zu.  
 
ISt under der Handarbeit auch der Rechten kern stuck eines / dann so du von deinem gegenpart mit behenden und geschwinden stucken ubereilet / kanstu ihn mit keinem andern stuck besser stecken und hindern / dann mit dem schnit / welches du dir dann auch in allen stucken als ein sonders hiezu erfunden kleinot / im vorrath behalten solt / Du must aber das Schneiden also volbringen / nach dem du deines widerparts Schwerdt mit dem Band empfangen / soltu daran verharren / zufülen ob er vom Bandt abgehn oder umbschlagen wolt / als bald er umbschlegt / so fahr ihm mit der Langen schneiden auff sein Arm nach / stoß ihn mit der sterck oder schilt im ruck von dir / laß fliegen / und ehe er sich erholen mag / so hauwe der nechsten Blössen zu.  
Line 971: Line 973:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Slashing Around'''
+
| <p>'''Slashing Around'''</p>
Is named from hitting around with the sword, when you have bound from your right against his left, from this bind leave off again, strike or rush around to the other side.
+
 
 +
<p>Is named from hitting around with the sword, when you have bound from your right against his left, from this bind leave off again, strike or rush around to the other side.</p>
 
| '''Umbschlagen.'''
 
| '''Umbschlagen.'''
 
HEist vom Schwerdt umbschlagen / wann du von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken angebunden / vom selben Bandt wider abgehest / zur andern seiten umbschlegest oder zu schnellest.
 
HEist vom Schwerdt umbschlagen / wann du von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken angebunden / vom selben Bandt wider abgehest / zur andern seiten umbschlegest oder zu schnellest.
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Flowing Off'''
+
| <p>'''Flowing Off'''</p>
On whichever hand you bind on your opponent’s sword, so move while retrieving your hand, and let yourself flow off below you with the half edge, and twitch under to bring your riccasso high overhead to strike, and drive such to both sides.
+
 
 +
<p>On whichever hand you bind on your opponent’s sword, so move while retrieving your hand, and let yourself flow off below you with the half edge, and twitch under to bring your riccasso high overhead to strike, and drive such to both sides.</p>
 
| '''Ablauffen.'''
 
| '''Ablauffen.'''
 
ISt / von welcher Handt du dem Mann an sein Schwerdt bindest / so verkehr in dem es riert dein Hand / und laß mit halber schneid undersich ablauffen / und zuck under des dein Hefft ubersich in die höh zum streich / und solches treib zu beiden seiten.
 
ISt / von welcher Handt du dem Mann an sein Schwerdt bindest / so verkehr in dem es riert dein Hand / und laß mit halber schneid undersich ablauffen / und zuck under des dein Hefft ubersich in die höh zum streich / und solches treib zu beiden seiten.
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Misleading'''
+
| <p>'''Misleading'''</p>
Remember this: when you show your intent, as if you mean to fence to one of your opponent’s openings, absolutely do not do so, but instead slash the strike unto another opening, to which you should come properly without injury, and thus Misleading enables many moves, such as facing with the Glancer Strike, Hacking, Flying, Beckoning, Off Flowing, Twitch, Circle and others. In addition, Misleading is not only performed with the sword, but also by presenting various initial stances, which are not yet more techniques, because techniques are the fencer’s distinction, toward which you direct yourself throughout fencing at every single distinction and habit which then shall be set upon with wrath. This quickly clears hands fenced slowly, thus Misleading likewise requires forms which will be directed in the work.
+
 
 +
<p>Remember this: when you show your intent, as if you mean to fence to one of your opponent’s openings, absolutely do not do so, but instead slash the strike unto another opening, to which you should come properly without injury, and thus Misleading enables many moves, such as facing with the Glancer Strike, Hacking, Flying, Beckoning, Off Flowing, Twitch, Circle and others. In addition, Misleading is not only performed with the sword, but also by presenting various initial stances, which are not yet more techniques, because techniques are the fencer’s distinction, toward which you direct yourself throughout fencing at every single distinction and habit which then shall be set upon with wrath. This quickly clears hands fenced slowly, thus Misleading likewise requires forms which will be directed in the work.</p>
 
| '''[XVIIIv] Verführen.'''
 
| '''[XVIIIv] Verführen.'''
 
HElt sich also / wann du dich mit geberden erzeigest / als ob du deiner gegenpart zu einer Blöß zufechten wollest / thust es aber doch nit / sondern schlechst den streich zu einer andern Blöß hinein / zu der du am füglichsten ohn schaden zukommen vermeinest / und ob aber schon vilerlei stuck so dem verführen zustendig / als der Schillerhauw mit dem gesicht / das Verfelen / Verfliegen / Wincken / Ablauffen /Verzuck / Zirckel und andere / auch dero wegen das Verführen nit allein mit dem Schwerdt / sonder auch mit den geberden mancherley hieraus entstehet / so seind doch dessen nit mehr art / als art und eigenschaft der Fechter seind / denn es richt sich durchaus nach eines jeden eigenschafft unnd gewonheit im Fechten / als da der zornig / einander sitsam / dieser geschwindt und hurtig / jhender langsam fichtet / also auch das Verführen gleicher gestalt gebraucht und in das werck gerichtet wirt.
 
HElt sich also / wann du dich mit geberden erzeigest / als ob du deiner gegenpart zu einer Blöß zufechten wollest / thust es aber doch nit / sondern schlechst den streich zu einer andern Blöß hinein / zu der du am füglichsten ohn schaden zukommen vermeinest / und ob aber schon vilerlei stuck so dem verführen zustendig / als der Schillerhauw mit dem gesicht / das Verfelen / Verfliegen / Wincken / Ablauffen /Verzuck / Zirckel und andere / auch dero wegen das Verführen nit allein mit dem Schwerdt / sonder auch mit den geberden mancherley hieraus entstehet / so seind doch dessen nit mehr art / als art und eigenschaft der Fechter seind / denn es richt sich durchaus nach eines jeden eigenschafft unnd gewonheit im Fechten / als da der zornig / einander sitsam / dieser geschwindt und hurtig / jhender langsam fichtet / also auch das Verführen gleicher gestalt gebraucht und in das werck gerichtet wirt.
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Flying Off'''
+
| <p>'''Flying Off'''</p>
Withdrawing thus is shown: when you in either pre-fencing or full work strike at your opponent’s opening, but he drives to intercept your strike in the air, do not allow him to put his blade onto your sword, but twitch off the strike with one flight in the air to another opening, which will work very well against this, follow only after your sword and your body will not come to be hurt.
+
 
 +
<p>Withdrawing thus is shown: when you in either pre-fencing or full work strike at your opponent’s opening, but he drives to intercept your strike in the air, do not allow him to put his blade onto your sword, but twitch off the strike with one flight in the air to another opening, which will work very well against this, follow only after your sword and your body will not come to be hurt.</p>
 
| '''Verfliegen.'''
 
| '''Verfliegen.'''
 
MUß also geschehen / wann du im zufechten oder voller arbeit deines widerparts Blöß zuhauwest / er aber dein streich in der lufft zu empfangen dir entgegen fehret / das du jn nit lassest mit seiner Klinge an dein Schwerdt rühren / sonder in der lufft solchen streich mit einem flug wider abzuckest / zu einer andern Blöß / welche arbet den gegen disen sehr nützlich / o nur dein Schwerdt nachreisen und nit den leib zu verletzen begirig.
 
MUß also geschehen / wann du im zufechten oder voller arbeit deines widerparts Blöß zuhauwest / er aber dein streich in der lufft zu empfangen dir entgegen fehret / das du jn nit lassest mit seiner Klinge an dein Schwerdt rühren / sonder in der lufft solchen streich mit einem flug wider abzuckest / zu einer andern Blöß / welche arbet den gegen disen sehr nützlich / o nur dein Schwerdt nachreisen und nit den leib zu verletzen begirig.
Line 999: Line 1,005:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Setting Aside'''
+
| <p>'''Setting Aside'''</p>
Now in all Fencing moves, as above were shown, two things are necessary, namely strikes, and strikes which clear or displace with the sword. So mark that this handwork is the proper clearing or displacing, with which you won’t address the strikes badly and not strike onward again, but move at the same time to address his opening during the withdrawal. As you come during pre-fencing into the Changer, and as he strikes to you then from Above, drive upward with the long edge against his strike, and step at the same time with your right foot against his left and offset him, then as soon as he glides, wind the short edge, and rush at him against his head.
+
 
 +
<p>Now in all Fencing moves, as above were shown, two things are necessary, namely strikes, and strikes which clear or displace with the sword. So mark that this handwork is the proper clearing or displacing, with which you won’t address the strikes badly and not strike onward again, but move at the same time to address his opening during the withdrawal. As you come during pre-fencing into the Changer, and as he strikes to you then from Above, drive upward with the long edge against his strike, and step at the same time with your right foot against his left and offset him, then as soon as he glides, wind the short edge, and rush at him against his head.</p>
 
| '''Absetzen.'''
 
| '''Absetzen.'''
 
DIeweil alle Fechtstuck / wie oben angezeigt / zwey ding erfordern nemlich hauwen / und die häuw mit dem Schwerdt abtragen oder versetzen / so merck das hie diese Handtarbeit das recht abtragen oder versetzen ist / mit welchem du nit allein die streich schlecht empfahest / und nit herwider hauwest / sonder auch zugleich indem der absatz rühret zu seiner Blöß mit außtretten triffest / als kompstu im zufechten in Wechsel / Hauwet er dir als dann '''[XIXr]''' von Oben zu / so fahr ubersich mit Langer schneid gegen seinem streich / und trit zugleich mit dem Rechten fuß gegen seiner Lincken unnd setz jhm ab / gleich in dem es dann gliitzt / so verwendt die kurtze schneid / unnd schnell jhm gegen seinem Kopff.
 
DIeweil alle Fechtstuck / wie oben angezeigt / zwey ding erfordern nemlich hauwen / und die häuw mit dem Schwerdt abtragen oder versetzen / so merck das hie diese Handtarbeit das recht abtragen oder versetzen ist / mit welchem du nit allein die streich schlecht empfahest / und nit herwider hauwest / sonder auch zugleich indem der absatz rühret zu seiner Blöß mit außtretten triffest / als kompstu im zufechten in Wechsel / Hauwet er dir als dann '''[XIXr]''' von Oben zu / so fahr ubersich mit Langer schneid gegen seinem streich / und trit zugleich mit dem Rechten fuß gegen seiner Lincken unnd setz jhm ab / gleich in dem es dann gliitzt / so verwendt die kurtze schneid / unnd schnell jhm gegen seinem Kopff.
Line 1,006: Line 1,013:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Slinging'''
+
| <p>'''Slinging'''</p>
Is nothing other than how you let a strike fly in a Sling to your opponent’s head, for this put yourself in the Fool’s guard, and pull your sword back though close to your right, step with your right foot to your opponent while pulling your sword back to you, and sling your strike to his head. This Slinging Strike shall fly out even like a stone is thrown from a sling, whatever more you need note on Slinging you will find described in sections after here.
+
 
 +
<p>Is nothing other than how you let a strike fly in a Sling to your opponent’s head, for this put yourself in the Fool’s guard, and pull your sword back though close to your right, step with your right foot to your opponent while pulling your sword back to you, and sling your strike to his head. This Slinging Strike shall fly out even like a stone is thrown from a sling, whatever more you need note on Slinging you will find described in sections after here.</p>
 
| '''Schlaudern.'''
 
| '''Schlaudern.'''
 
ISt nichts anders dann so du einen Hauw in einem Schlauder dem Mann zum Kopff fliegen last / als schicke dich in die Hut des Olbers / und zeihe dein Schwerdt neben deiner Rechten zuruck durch / trit also in dem du dein Schwerdt zurück zeuchst mit deinem Rechten fuß zu jm / unnd Schlauder ihm deinen Hauw zum Kopff / Dieser Schlauderhauw sol eben daher fliegen wie ein stein auß einer Schlaudern geworffen wirdt / was aber sonst mehr von Schlaudern nötig / findestu in stucken hernach beschrieben.
 
ISt nichts anders dann so du einen Hauw in einem Schlauder dem Mann zum Kopff fliegen last / als schicke dich in die Hut des Olbers / und zeihe dein Schwerdt neben deiner Rechten zuruck durch / trit also in dem du dein Schwerdt zurück zeuchst mit deinem Rechten fuß zu jm / unnd Schlauder ihm deinen Hauw zum Kopff / Dieser Schlauderhauw sol eben daher fliegen wie ein stein auß einer Schlaudern geworffen wirdt / was aber sonst mehr von Schlaudern nötig / findestu in stucken hernach beschrieben.
Line 1,013: Line 1,021:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Twitching'''
+
| <p>'''Twitching'''</p>
Twitching is one very good handwork with which you can masterly mislead your opponent, and which shall be operated thus: After you have bound against your opponent with the long edge or have struck in to an opening, handily twitch over yourself again as if you want to strike to the other side, however don’t drive ahead, but handily execute the strike with the short edge again onto the point, from which you are exited.
+
 
 +
<p>Twitching is one very good handwork with which you can masterly mislead your opponent, and which shall be operated thus: After you have bound against your opponent with the long edge or have struck in to an opening, handily twitch over yourself again as if you want to strike to the other side, however don’t drive ahead, but handily execute the strike with the short edge again onto the point, from which you are exited.</p>
 
| '''Zucken.'''
 
| '''Zucken.'''
 
MIt zucken welches ein sehr gut Handtarbeit ist / kanstu deinen gegenfechter meisterlich verführen / welches du also treiben solt / Nach dem du deinen Mann mit Langer schneiden angebunden oder eingehauwen hast / zu einer Blöß / so zuck behend wider ubersich als ob du auff die andere seiten hauwen wollest / fahr aber nit fort / sonder vollendt den Hauw mit kurtzer schneid behendt wider an den ort / von welchem du abgangen bist.
 
MIt zucken welches ein sehr gut Handtarbeit ist / kanstu deinen gegenfechter meisterlich verführen / welches du also treiben solt / Nach dem du deinen Mann mit Langer schneiden angebunden oder eingehauwen hast / zu einer Blöß / so zuck behend wider ubersich als ob du auff die andere seiten hauwen wollest / fahr aber nit fort / sonder vollendt den Hauw mit kurtzer schneid behendt wider an den ort / von welchem du abgangen bist.
Line 1,020: Line 1,029:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Doubling'''
+
| <p>'''Doubling'''</p>
Is a strike or move made double in this wise: Strike first from your right to his ear, as then when the swords glide together, thrust your sword’s pommel through under your right arm, driving at the same time out with both arms, and hit him with the the short edge behind his blade onto his head. This handwork will therefore be called Doubling, because through it a double or twofold strike will be accomplished, first with long and then with short edge.
+
 
 +
<p>Is a strike or move made double in this wise: Strike first from your right to his ear, as then when the swords glide together, thrust your sword’s pommel through under your right arm, driving at the same time out with both arms, and hit him with the the short edge behind his blade onto his head. This handwork will therefore be called Doubling, because through it a double or twofold strike will be accomplished, first with long and then with short edge.</p>
 
| '''Doplieren.'''
 
| '''Doplieren.'''
 
ISt ein Hauw oder stuck doppel machen auff diese weiß / Hauwe erstlich von deiner Rechten zu seinem Ohr / als dann wann die Schwerdt zusamen glitschen / stoß dein Schwerdts Knopff under deinem Rechten Arm durch / fahr zugleich mit beiden Armen auff / und schlag ihn mit kurtzer schneiden hinder seiner klingen auff sein Kopff. Diese handtarbeit wirt derowegen Doplieren geheissen / dieweil dardurch ein Hauwe dopelt oder zwifacht volbracht wirt / erstlich mit Langer / denn mit halber schneidt.
 
ISt ein Hauw oder stuck doppel machen auff diese weiß / Hauwe erstlich von deiner Rechten zu seinem Ohr / als dann wann die Schwerdt zusamen glitschen / stoß dein Schwerdts Knopff under deinem Rechten Arm durch / fahr zugleich mit beiden Armen auff / und schlag ihn mit kurtzer schneiden hinder seiner klingen auff sein Kopff. Diese handtarbeit wirt derowegen Doplieren geheissen / dieweil dardurch ein Hauwe dopelt oder zwifacht volbracht wirt / erstlich mit Langer / denn mit halber schneidt.
Line 1,027: Line 1,037:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Inverting'''
+
| <p>'''Inverting'''</p>
Inverting is: bind onto your opponent’s sword against his left, and just as the pommel moves under your right arm, thrust through, if he at the same time would come at your head in a strike against your right, push your blade or arms from you with crossed hands so as to ward him below you so that he cannot work onward, however make your required space to work.
+
 
 +
<p>Inverting is: bind onto your opponent’s sword against his left, and just as the pommel moves under your right arm, thrust through, if he at the same time would come at your head in a strike against your right, push your blade or arms from you with crossed hands so as to ward him below you so that he cannot work onward, however make your required space to work.</p>
 
| '''[XIXv] Verkehren.'''
 
| '''[XIXv] Verkehren.'''
 
VErkehren ist / binde deinem widerpart gegen seiner Lincken an sein Schwerdt / unnd stoß in dem es rürt den Knopff under dein rechten Arm durch / entziehe jhm zugleich dein Kopff wol auß dem streich gegen deiner Rechten / truck volgends sein Kling oder Arm mit geschrenckten henden von dir / undersich damit du jhn zwingst das er nit mehr arbeiten kann / machst aber dir blatz nach deinem gefallen zu arbeiten.
 
VErkehren ist / binde deinem widerpart gegen seiner Lincken an sein Schwerdt / unnd stoß in dem es rürt den Knopff under dein rechten Arm durch / entziehe jhm zugleich dein Kopff wol auß dem streich gegen deiner Rechten / truck volgends sein Kling oder Arm mit geschrenckten henden von dir / undersich damit du jhn zwingst das er nit mehr arbeiten kann / machst aber dir blatz nach deinem gefallen zu arbeiten.
Line 1,034: Line 1,045:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Clipping'''
+
| <p>'''Clipping'''</p>
Clipping is two moded, the first is when you, as just now was told, come at him in a flip his arm or blade, thus stopping his blade or arm with quillons stiff under you, and under this let the blade Clip to his head.
+
 
 +
<p>Clipping is two moded, the first is when you, as just now was told, come at him in a flip his arm or blade, thus stopping his blade or arm with quillons stiff under you, and under this let the blade Clip to his head.</p>
 
| '''Umbschnappen.'''
 
| '''Umbschnappen.'''
 
UMbschnappen ist zweyerley / das eine / wann du wie jetzt bemelt jhm mit verkeren auff sein Arm oder Klingen kommen / so halt jm sein Klingen oder Arm / mit kreutzstangen steiff under dir / unnd laß under des die klingen umbschnappen seinem Kopff zu.
 
UMbschnappen ist zweyerley / das eine / wann du wie jetzt bemelt jhm mit verkeren auff sein Arm oder Klingen kommen / so halt jm sein Klingen oder Arm / mit kreutzstangen steiff under dir / unnd laß under des die klingen umbschnappen seinem Kopff zu.
Line 1,041: Line 1,053:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| However, the other is where he closes to you with a Loop under him, retreat with the left foot towards his right, and at the same time reach over his right arm with the pommel above, pull back under yourself, and let the sword edge come under his blade to clip against his head, such that your hands come to cross over each other.
+
| <p>However, the other is where he closes to you with a Loop under him, retreat with the left foot towards his right, and at the same time reach over his right arm with the pommel above, pull back under yourself, and let the sword edge come under his blade to clip against his head, such that your hands come to cross over each other.</p>
 
| Das ander / so er aber dich mit verkeren undersich getrungen hat / so weich jhm mit dem Lincken fuß gegen seiner Rechten / und greiff zugleich mit dem Knopff oben uber sein rechten Arm / ruck den undersich / und laß under seiner Klingen mit kurtzer schneid gegen seinem Kopff herfür umbschnappen / das dir dein hendt kreutzweiß uber einander kommen.  
 
| Das ander / so er aber dich mit verkeren undersich getrungen hat / so weich jhm mit dem Lincken fuß gegen seiner Rechten / und greiff zugleich mit dem Knopff oben uber sein rechten Arm / ruck den undersich / und laß under seiner Klingen mit kurtzer schneid gegen seinem Kopff herfür umbschnappen / das dir dein hendt kreutzweiß uber einander kommen.  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Feinting'''
+
| <p>'''Feinting'''</p>
Feinting can be wanted each time, however it will be useful and resorted to properly and in the suitable time which only the advancing fencer knows, thereby you will effect a false strike with advantage, that you seek to attain another from there, and take it soon. When you strike at one opening, and your opponent would displace you, don’t pull the strike but let it flow off nicely, and strike to another opening, as in this example. In advancing come into the right Wrath, and as soon as you can reach him, step and strike at the left ear unto his sword, however in the strike, even and then pull it, thus lift the pommel and let the blade miss and flow off near his left, and twitch over the head, as to then strike him on the other side, out over his right arm to his head.
+
 
 +
<p>Feinting can be wanted each time, however it will be useful and resorted to properly and in the suitable time which only the advancing fencer knows, thereby you will effect a false strike with advantage, that you seek to attain another from there, and take it soon. When you strike at one opening, and your opponent would displace you, don’t pull the strike but let it flow off nicely, and strike to another opening, as in this example. In advancing come into the right Wrath, and as soon as you can reach him, step and strike at the left ear unto his sword, however in the strike, even and then pull it, thus lift the pommel and let the blade miss and flow off near his left, and twitch over the head, as to then strike him on the other side, out over his right arm to his head.</p>
 
| '''Fehlen.'''
 
| '''Fehlen.'''
 
FEhlen kann ein jeder wol / aber solches mit fug und zu gelegner zeit nützlich zugebrauchen / weis allein ein wolgeübter Fechter / Derowegen wiltu mit vortheil ein Fehlstreich thun / das du ein andern daraus erholen mögest / son nim war. Wann du zu einer Blöß einhauwest / und dir dein widerpart versetzen will / das du den Hauw nit rüren sonder ablauffen last / und hauwest zu einer andern Blös zu / als zu einem exempel. Im zugang komm in rechten Zorn / und als bald du jhn kanst erlangen / so trit und hauwe dem lincken Ohr zu biß an sein Schwerdt / in dem Hauw aber / ehe und denn es rüret / so erhebe den Knopff und laß die kling neben seiner Lincken fehl ablauffen / und zuck umb den kopff / als dann hauwe jm zur andern seiten / aussen uber sein rechten Arm zu seinem Kopff.
 
FEhlen kann ein jeder wol / aber solches mit fug und zu gelegner zeit nützlich zugebrauchen / weis allein ein wolgeübter Fechter / Derowegen wiltu mit vortheil ein Fehlstreich thun / das du ein andern daraus erholen mögest / son nim war. Wann du zu einer Blöß einhauwest / und dir dein widerpart versetzen will / das du den Hauw nit rüren sonder ablauffen last / und hauwest zu einer andern Blös zu / als zu einem exempel. Im zugang komm in rechten Zorn / und als bald du jhn kanst erlangen / so trit und hauwe dem lincken Ohr zu biß an sein Schwerdt / in dem Hauw aber / ehe und denn es rüret / so erhebe den Knopff und laß die kling neben seiner Lincken fehl ablauffen / und zuck umb den kopff / als dann hauwe jm zur andern seiten / aussen uber sein rechten Arm zu seinem Kopff.
 
 
 
<section begin="Zirckel"/>
 
<section begin="Zirckel"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword E.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''Circle'''
+
| <p>'''Circle'''</p>
When you stand in the bind before your opponent, and both you and he drive the swords foreward in the air overhead, but neither will give away an opening to the other, then the Circle is an especially good work model at need which you will execute thus: Strike with the half edge and crossed hands from above toward his right side forward through above, so that both your hands stay overhead, but in striking cross your right hand boldly over your left, thereby you will want to reach or graze his right ear with the half edge, the sword thus clips him with your arms under yourself, then step with the right foot to take on his right side or to bring yourself back, and strike a direct splitting strike to his head.
+
 
 +
<p>When you stand in the bind before your opponent, and both you and he drive the swords foreward in the air overhead, but neither will give away an opening to the other, then the Circle is an especially good work model at need which you will execute thus: Strike with the half edge and crossed hands from above toward his right side forward through above, so that both your hands stay overhead, but in striking cross your right hand boldly over your left, thereby you will want to reach or graze his right ear with the half edge, the sword thus clips him with your arms under yourself, then step with the right foot to take on his right side or to bring yourself back, and strike a direct splitting strike to his head.</p>
 
| '''[XXrv] Zirckel.'''
 
| '''[XXrv] Zirckel.'''
 
WAnn du im Bandt vor dem Mann stehest / unnd beide du und er die Schwerdter uber dem Kopff in den lüfften führen / aber keiner vor dem andern sich Bloß will geben / so ist der Zirckel ein ausbündige sonder gute arbeit zu gebrauchen / welchen soltu also machen / Hauwe mit halber schneid und geschrenckten henden von Oben / neben seiner Rechten seiten für uber durch / das dein beide hendt ob dem Haubt bleiben / im Hauwen aber schrenck dein Rechte hand dapffer uber dein Linkce / damit du jhm das Recht ohr wol mögest mit halber schneid erlangen oder schürpffen / wischt er als dann mit den Armen undersich dem Schwerdt nach / so trit mit dem Rechten fuß wol beseits auff sein Rechte seiten oder hindersich zu ruck / und hauwe ein geraden Scheitelhauw zu seinem kopff.
 
WAnn du im Bandt vor dem Mann stehest / unnd beide du und er die Schwerdter uber dem Kopff in den lüfften führen / aber keiner vor dem andern sich Bloß will geben / so ist der Zirckel ein ausbündige sonder gute arbeit zu gebrauchen / welchen soltu also machen / Hauwe mit halber schneid und geschrenckten henden von Oben / neben seiner Rechten seiten für uber durch / das dein beide hendt ob dem Haubt bleiben / im Hauwen aber schrenck dein Rechte hand dapffer uber dein Linkce / damit du jhm das Recht ohr wol mögest mit halber schneid erlangen oder schürpffen / wischt er als dann mit den Armen undersich dem Schwerdt nach / so trit mit dem Rechten fuß wol beseits auff sein Rechte seiten oder hindersich zu ruck / und hauwe ein geraden Scheitelhauw zu seinem kopff.
 
 
<section end="Zirckel"/><section begin="Rinde"/>
 
<section end="Zirckel"/><section begin="Rinde"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Rounds'''
+
| <p>'''Rounds'''</p>
The rounds are two things, Single and Double. The single round is when you twitch off your sword from your opponent’s blade or opening in a swing overhead, and let fly over in the air so that you make a round circle. The double round is this: when you so twitch strongly off from his sword, that it goes over your head two times in full swing overhead, one time to each side, thus both single and double rounds are very serviceable also to Leading On, such that you will see and drive farther onward.
+
 
 +
<p>The rounds are two things, Single and Double. The single round is when you twitch off your sword from your opponent’s blade or opening in a swing overhead, and let fly over in the air so that you make a round circle. The double round is this: when you so twitch strongly off from his sword, that it goes over your head two times in full swing overhead, one time to each side, thus both single and double rounds are very serviceable also to Leading On, such that you will see and drive farther onward.</p>
 
| '''Rinde.'''
 
| '''Rinde.'''
 
DEr Rinde seind zweyerley / Einfach und Doppelt / Einfache Rinde ist / wann du dein Schwerdt von deines gegenparts klingen oder Blöß in einem schwung uber dein Kopff abzuckest / und in der lufft last umbfliegen / also das du ein runden Zirckel machest. Doppel Rinde ist diese / wann du also starck von seinem Schwerdt abzuckest / das es zweymal in vollem schwung uber deinem Haubt umblaufft / zu jeder seiten einmal / welche Rind beide Einfach unnd Doppel sehr dienstlich auch zum verführen seind / wie du solches in den stucken weitleuffiger sehen und erfahren wirst.
 
DEr Rinde seind zweyerley / Einfach und Doppelt / Einfache Rinde ist / wann du dein Schwerdt von deines gegenparts klingen oder Blöß in einem schwung uber dein Kopff abzuckest / und in der lufft last umbfliegen / also das du ein runden Zirckel machest. Doppel Rinde ist diese / wann du also starck von seinem Schwerdt abzuckest / das es zweymal in vollem schwung uber deinem Haubt umblaufft / zu jeder seiten einmal / welche Rind beide Einfach unnd Doppel sehr dienstlich auch zum verführen seind / wie du solches in den stucken weitleuffiger sehen und erfahren wirst.
 
 
<section end="Rinde"/><section begin="Winden"/>
 
<section end="Rinde"/><section begin="Winden"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Winding'''
+
| <p>'''Winding'''</p>
The word Winding is known in good German as Twisting, whose work shall be done thus: when you have bound onto your opponent’s sword from your right against his left, then hold fast in the bind and wind the far part of your blade inward against his head, and then again out. So that you will be told how to always stay stiff onto his sword in the bind, such will be shown in this example.
+
 
 +
<p>The word Winding is known in good German as Twisting, whose work shall be done thus: when you have bound onto your opponent’s sword from your right against his left, then hold fast in the bind and wind the far part of your blade inward against his head, and then again out. So that you will be told how to always stay stiff onto his sword in the bind, such will be shown in this example.</p>
 
| '''Winden.'''
 
| '''Winden.'''
 
DAs wörtlein Winden heißt auff gut Teutsch Wenden / welche arbeit soll also gemacht werden / wann du von deiner Rechten an deines widerparts Schwerdt gegen seiner Lincken hast angebunden / so bleib am Bandt fest / und wende jhm das vordertheil deiner klingen einwerdts gegen seinem Kopff / unnd wider heraus / doch das [XXIr] du alweg under des wie bemelt / steiff an seinem Schwerdt mit dem Bandt bleibest / wie solches hie in disem Exempel zusehen.  
 
DAs wörtlein Winden heißt auff gut Teutsch Wenden / welche arbeit soll also gemacht werden / wann du von deiner Rechten an deines widerparts Schwerdt gegen seiner Lincken hast angebunden / so bleib am Bandt fest / und wende jhm das vordertheil deiner klingen einwerdts gegen seinem Kopff / unnd wider heraus / doch das [XXIr] du alweg under des wie bemelt / steiff an seinem Schwerdt mit dem Bandt bleibest / wie solches hie in disem Exempel zusehen.  
Line 1,078: Line 1,090:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Strike once from the Roof, thus binding from your right with a hard traverse onto his sword, and just as it connects, thrust your pommel through under your right arm, and wind the short edge thus in a rush inward against his head, in this all but stay with the edge hard against his sword, if he would beware of the rush and displace, or if you feel that he will fall down to your openings from above, then pull the pommel from under your arm again to your left above you, and hit him again with the short edge through the traverse to his left ear.
+
| <p>Strike once from the Roof, thus binding from your right with a hard traverse onto his sword, and just as it connects, thrust your pommel through under your right arm, and wind the short edge thus in a rush inward against his head, in this all but stay with the edge hard against his sword, if he would beware of the rush and displace, or if you feel that he will fall down to your openings from above, then pull the pommel from under your arm again to your left above you, and hit him again with the short edge through the traverse to his left ear.</p>
 
| Hauwet einer von dach auff dich / so bindt von deiner Rechten mit einem Zwirch an sein Schwerdt / unnd in dem es glitscht / so stoß dein Knopff under deinem rechten arm durch / unnd wend also die kurtze schneidt in einem schnall einwerts gegen seinem Kopff / in disem allem aber bleib mit dem schnit hart an seinem Schwerdt / wirt er des schnals gewahr und versetzt / oder wirstu fülen das er dir von Oben vom Schwerdt will niderfallen zu der blöß so ruck den Knopff under deinem Arm wider herfür gegen deiner Lincken ubersich / unnd schlag jhm wider mit kurtzer schneiden durch die Zwirch zu seinem Lincken ohr.  
 
| Hauwet einer von dach auff dich / so bindt von deiner Rechten mit einem Zwirch an sein Schwerdt / unnd in dem es glitscht / so stoß dein Knopff under deinem rechten arm durch / unnd wend also die kurtze schneidt in einem schnall einwerts gegen seinem Kopff / in disem allem aber bleib mit dem schnit hart an seinem Schwerdt / wirt er des schnals gewahr und versetzt / oder wirstu fülen das er dir von Oben vom Schwerdt will niderfallen zu der blöß so ruck den Knopff under deinem Arm wider herfür gegen deiner Lincken ubersich / unnd schlag jhm wider mit kurtzer schneiden durch die Zwirch zu seinem Lincken ohr.  
 
 
 
<section end="Winden"/><section begin="Durchwinden"/>
 
<section end="Winden"/><section begin="Durchwinden"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Winding Through'''
+
| <p>'''Winding Through'''</p>
If you bind with a Traverse Strike, as was described before here, wind the short edge inward against your opponent’s head, then step through under it with the right foot between you and him, against your opponent’s right side, and wind through at the same time with your hilt under your blade from your left side, and drive him with your pommel winding out over your right arm, step back with the right foot, and travel at the same time from your right side out under him, and slash in with the long edge to the head, thus have you not only wound through, but also wrenched over with the pommel.
+
 
 +
<p>If you bind with a Traverse Strike, as was described before here, wind the short edge inward against your opponent’s head, then step through under it with the right foot between you and him, against your opponent’s right side, and wind through at the same time with your hilt under your blade from your left side, and drive him with your pommel winding out over your right arm, step back with the right foot, and travel at the same time from your right side out under him, and slash in with the long edge to the head, thus have you not only wound through, but also wrenched over with the pommel.</p>
 
| '''Durchwinden.'''
 
| '''Durchwinden.'''
 
SO du mit einem Zwirchhauw angebunden / und wie hievor bemelt / die kurtze schneid gegen deines widerparts Kopff einwerts gewunden / so trit under des mit dem rechten Fuß zwischen dir unnd jhm durch / gegen des Manns Rechten seiten / und wende zugleich mit deinem Hefft under seiner klingen auff dein Lincke seiten durch / und fahr jhm mit deinem Knopff außwendig uber sein rechten Arm / trit mit dem rechten Fuß zu ruck / unnd reiß zugleich auff dein Rechte seiten undersich aus / und schlag jn damit mit Langer schneid auff den Kopff / also hastu nit allein durchgewendt / sonder mit dem Knopff ubergreiffen.
 
SO du mit einem Zwirchhauw angebunden / und wie hievor bemelt / die kurtze schneid gegen deines widerparts Kopff einwerts gewunden / so trit under des mit dem rechten Fuß zwischen dir unnd jhm durch / gegen des Manns Rechten seiten / und wende zugleich mit deinem Hefft under seiner klingen auff dein Lincke seiten durch / und fahr jhm mit deinem Knopff außwendig uber sein rechten Arm / trit mit dem rechten Fuß zu ruck / unnd reiß zugleich auff dein Rechte seiten undersich aus / und schlag jn damit mit Langer schneid auff den Kopff / also hastu nit allein durchgewendt / sonder mit dem Knopff ubergreiffen.
 
 
 
<section end="Durchwinden"/><section begin="Wechseln"/>
 
<section end="Durchwinden"/><section begin="Wechseln"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Changes'''
+
| <p>'''Changes'''</p>
A skilled fencer will have Changes, so then be skilled at such and only Change at the right time, and only when you need, and not give away your openings without cause. However he who will be experienced in fencing will need the knowledge of Changes, for is it an artful work and belongs to fencing with all this, that while it only works against the sword and not against the body, the Changes are many. Change in opening from one side to the other, change before the attack from one stance to another. Remember in the attacks to change through against the strikes, thus in the pre-fencing strike from your right a direct Wrath or High strike against your opponent’s left side, strike him against the sword and not to his body, thus let the point flit under his sword with crossed hands with the strike, step and strike in to the other high target, see however that you carefully ensure that he does not attack or set upon you by following after, to this in the beginning come into the Long Point, and stretch likewise long from you, if he strikes at your sword, and will hit out or wind, then let the point drop under yourself through sinking, and work him to the other side, if he swipes after and will displace, then change through again, bite onward again to another opening or work to stand yet rightly, then after you can strike.
+
 
 +
<p>A skilled fencer will have Changes, so then be skilled at such and only Change at the right time, and only when you need, and not give away your openings without cause. However he who will be experienced in fencing will need the knowledge of Changes, for is it an artful work and belongs to fencing with all this, that while it only works against the sword and not against the body, the Changes are many. Change in opening from one side to the other, change before the attack from one stance to another. Remember in the attacks to change through against the strikes, thus in the pre-fencing strike from your right a direct Wrath or High strike against your opponent’s left side, strike him against the sword and not to his body, thus let the point flit under his sword with crossed hands with the strike, step and strike in to the other high target, see however that you carefully ensure that he does not attack or set upon you by following after, to this in the beginning come into the Long Point, and stretch likewise long from you, if he strikes at your sword, and will hit out or wind, then let the point drop under yourself through sinking, and work him to the other side, if he swipes after and will displace, then change through again, bite onward again to another opening or work to stand yet rightly, then after you can strike.</p>
 
| '''Wechseln.'''
 
| '''Wechseln.'''
 
WEchseln will ein geübten Fechter haben / denn welcher ongeübt unnd nit zu rechter zeit Wechselt / der saumet sich nur / und gibt sich ohn ursach blos / wer aber im Fechten erfahren / und sich des Wechseln weiß zugebrauchen / dm ist es ein künstliche arbeit / und gehört gegen diese zu Fechten / die nur nach dem Schwerdt und nit nach dem leib arbeiten / Das Wechseln aber ist mancherley / Wechseln im zugang von einer seiten zur andern / Wechseln vor dem angriff von einem Leger in das ander / Item im angreiffen gegen den Hauwe durchwechseln / also im zufechten Hauw von deiner Rechten einen geraden Zorn oder Oberhauw / gegen deines widerparts Lincke sei'''[XXIv]'''ten / Hauwet er gegen dem Schwerdt und nit zum leib / so laß den ort sampt dem Hauw mit geschrenckten henden unden durch wischen / trit und hauw zur andern Ober Blöß lang hinein / sihe aber das du fürsichtig seiest / das er dich im Nachreisen nit erhasche oder dir ansetze / gleichfals im zugang komme in das Lang ort / und streck dasselbig lang von dir / Hauwet er gegen deinem Schwerdt / und will ausschlagen oder Winden / so laß den ort undersich durch sincken / und arbeit jhm zur andern seiten / wischt er jhm nach und will versetzen / so Wechsel wider durch / biß dir entweders ein Blös wirt oder dir sonst fügliche arbeit zuschlehet / darnach du hauwen könnest.
 
WEchseln will ein geübten Fechter haben / denn welcher ongeübt unnd nit zu rechter zeit Wechselt / der saumet sich nur / und gibt sich ohn ursach blos / wer aber im Fechten erfahren / und sich des Wechseln weiß zugebrauchen / dm ist es ein künstliche arbeit / und gehört gegen diese zu Fechten / die nur nach dem Schwerdt und nit nach dem leib arbeiten / Das Wechseln aber ist mancherley / Wechseln im zugang von einer seiten zur andern / Wechseln vor dem angriff von einem Leger in das ander / Item im angreiffen gegen den Hauwe durchwechseln / also im zufechten Hauw von deiner Rechten einen geraden Zorn oder Oberhauw / gegen deines widerparts Lincke sei'''[XXIv]'''ten / Hauwet er gegen dem Schwerdt und nit zum leib / so laß den ort sampt dem Hauw mit geschrenckten henden unden durch wischen / trit und hauw zur andern Ober Blöß lang hinein / sihe aber das du fürsichtig seiest / das er dich im Nachreisen nit erhasche oder dir ansetze / gleichfals im zugang komme in das Lang ort / und streck dasselbig lang von dir / Hauwet er gegen deinem Schwerdt / und will ausschlagen oder Winden / so laß den ort undersich durch sincken / und arbeit jhm zur andern seiten / wischt er jhm nach und will versetzen / so Wechsel wider durch / biß dir entweders ein Blös wirt oder dir sonst fügliche arbeit zuschlehet / darnach du hauwen könnest.
 
 
 
<section end="Wechseln"/><section begin="Abschneiden"/>
 
<section end="Wechseln"/><section begin="Abschneiden"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Slicing Off'''
+
| <p>'''Slicing Off'''</p>
Slicing Off shall you drive thus: hold the sword with outstretched arms long from you, or sink into the Fool’s guard, strike your opponent then with a long strike from you, and thus slice away from you to both sides with the long edge, so as long as you keep your advantage, that you onward will come to work properly at need.
+
 
 +
<p>Slicing Off shall you drive thus: hold the sword with outstretched arms long from you, or sink into the Fool’s guard, strike your opponent then with a long strike from you, and thus slice away from you to both sides with the long edge, so as long as you keep your advantage, that you onward will come to work properly at need.</p>
 
| '''Abschneiden.'''
 
| '''Abschneiden.'''
 
ABschneiden soltu also treiben / halt das Schwerdt mit ausgestreckten Armen lang von dir / oder sencke dich in die Hut des Olbers / hauwet dann dein gegenmann mit langen Häuwen auff dich / so schneid dieselben mit Langer schneid von dir ab zu beiden seiten / so lang und vil biß du dein vortheil ersihest / das du zu anderer / dir mehr füglicher arbeit kommen mögest.
 
ABschneiden soltu also treiben / halt das Schwerdt mit ausgestreckten Armen lang von dir / oder sencke dich in die Hut des Olbers / hauwet dann dein gegenmann mit langen Häuwen auff dich / so schneid dieselben mit Langer schneid von dir ab zu beiden seiten / so lang und vil biß du dein vortheil ersihest / das du zu anderer / dir mehr füglicher arbeit kommen mögest.
Line 1,110: Line 1,119:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| In Slicing Off travelling after is also advantageous when done together with the slice, thus concerning this Liechtenauer spoke in a quote.  
+
| <p>In Slicing Off travelling after is also advantageous when done together with the slice, thus concerning this Liechtenauer spoke in a quote.</p>
  
 
:''Slice off the hardened /<br/>driven from both.''
 
:''Slice off the hardened /<br/>driven from both.''
 
That is cut the hard strike off from you from both sides. Apart than this, Slicing Off will be described more only after here in examples and other defenses.
 
 
| In disem Abschneiden ist das Nachreisen auch fein heimlich sampt dem Schnidt begriffen / darumb jhn den auch der Lichtenawer in einem Spruch verfasset da er spricht.
 
| In disem Abschneiden ist das Nachreisen auch fein heimlich sampt dem Schnidt begriffen / darumb jhn den auch der Lichtenawer in einem Spruch verfasset da er spricht.
  
 
:''Schneidt ab die herten /<br/>on beiden geferten.''
 
:''Schneidt ab die herten /<br/>on beiden geferten.''
  
Das ist schneid die harten streich von dir ab von beiden seiten / aber von disem Abschneiden wirt hernach in den Exempeln / und andern Wehren mehr geschrieben.
+
|-
 
+
|
 
+
| <p>That is cut the hard strike off from you from both sides. Apart than this, Slicing Off will be described more only after here in examples and other defenses.</p>
 +
| Das ist schneid die harten streich von dir ab von beiden seiten / aber von disem Abschneiden wirt hernach in den Exempeln / und andern Wehren mehr geschrieben.
 
<section end="Abschneiden"/><section begin="Hendtrucken"/>
 
<section end="Abschneiden"/><section begin="Hendtrucken"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Hand Hitting'''
+
| <p>'''Hand Hitting'''</p>
Hand Hitting is almost the same as the Slice to the arm, of which is told above, and not otherwise shown, how to be done with the Over and Under cuts, unless you run one through with oafish hitting, so drive him under his strike with the Crown or other high displacement, or go under yourself by hanging, and catch his sword on your blade’s flat, and thus you come under his sword, yet pay attention when when he with his strike goes off from your defense again over you, that you follow after him with the strong of your sword, and take him with the hilt from below to drive the strong, that you trap him with both the strong and your blade, thrust at him with the hilt above you, and strike long against the opening.
+
 
 +
<p>Hand Hitting is almost the same as the Slice to the arm, of which is told above, and not otherwise shown, how to be done with the Over and Under cuts, unless you run one through with oafish hitting, so drive him under his strike with the Crown or other high displacement, or go under yourself by hanging, and catch his sword on your blade’s flat, and thus you come under his sword, yet pay attention when when he with his strike goes off from your defense again over you, that you follow after him with the strong of your sword, and take him with the hilt from below to drive the strong, that you trap him with both the strong and your blade, thrust at him with the hilt above you, and strike long against the opening.</p>
 
| '''Hendtrucken.'''
 
| '''Hendtrucken.'''
 
HEndtrucken vergleicht sich fast mit dem Schneiden auff die Arm / von welchen doben ist meldung gethan / sintemal nit anderst geschicht / denn mit dem Ober und Underschnidt / Als uberlaufft dich einer mit Büffelschlegen / so underfahr jhm seine streich mit der Kron / oder sonst hoher versatzung / oder undergehe jhn mit verhengen / und fang jhm sein Schwerdt auff deiner klingen fleche / und so du jhm under sein Schwerdt kommen / so hab acht '''[XXIIr]''' wenn er mit seinem streich von deiner Wehr wider ubersich abgeht / das du ihm mit der sterck deines Schwerdts nach volgest / und fallest ihm mit dem Schild von Unden für die feust / das du sie ihm beide mit der sterck deiner Klingen fassest / stoß ihn mit dem Schild ubersich von dir / und Hauwe lang nach der Blösse.
 
HEndtrucken vergleicht sich fast mit dem Schneiden auff die Arm / von welchen doben ist meldung gethan / sintemal nit anderst geschicht / denn mit dem Ober und Underschnidt / Als uberlaufft dich einer mit Büffelschlegen / so underfahr jhm seine streich mit der Kron / oder sonst hoher versatzung / oder undergehe jhn mit verhengen / und fang jhm sein Schwerdt auff deiner klingen fleche / und so du jhm under sein Schwerdt kommen / so hab acht '''[XXIIr]''' wenn er mit seinem streich von deiner Wehr wider ubersich abgeht / das du ihm mit der sterck deines Schwerdts nach volgest / und fallest ihm mit dem Schild von Unden für die feust / das du sie ihm beide mit der sterck deiner Klingen fassest / stoß ihn mit dem Schild ubersich von dir / und Hauwe lang nach der Blösse.
 
 
 
<section end="Hendtrucken"/><section begin="Verschieben"/>
 
<section end="Hendtrucken"/><section begin="Verschieben"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Deflecting'''
+
| <p>'''Deflecting'''</p>
When you stand in the right wrath, and you will be struck at, let the blade hang behind you, and send your hanging blade over your head and under his blade, that you catch his strike on your flat, and your thumbs stand broad across your hilt under you, to then wind or otherwise further work as you want, whatever you can best take onward.
+
 
 +
<p>When you stand in the right wrath, and you will be struck at, let the blade hang behind you, and send your hanging blade over your head and under his blade, that you catch his strike on your flat, and your thumbs stand broad across your hilt under you, to then wind or otherwise further work as you want, whatever you can best take onward.</p>
 
| '''Verschieben.'''
 
| '''Verschieben.'''
 
WAnn du im rechten Zorn stehest / und auff dich gehauwen wirt / so laß die Kling hinder dir hangen / und schich mit hangender Kling also uber dein Haupt under seine Kling / das du sein streich auff deine fleche empfangest / und dein Daumen den breiten weg auff deinem Schilt undersich stehe / als dan magstu Winden oder sonst fügliche arbeit / wie dichs am besten dunckt fürnemen.
 
WAnn du im rechten Zorn stehest / und auff dich gehauwen wirt / so laß die Kling hinder dir hangen / und schich mit hangender Kling also uber dein Haupt under seine Kling / das du sein streich auff deine fleche empfangest / und dein Daumen den breiten weg auff deinem Schilt undersich stehe / als dan magstu Winden oder sonst fügliche arbeit / wie dichs am besten dunckt fürnemen.
 
 
 
<section end="Verschieben"/><section begin="Hengen"/>
 
<section end="Verschieben"/><section begin="Hengen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Hanging'''
+
| <p>'''Hanging'''</p>
From the preceeding, Hanging is to be understood clearly, this you do thusly: When you stand in the Plough and your opponent strikes to you, drive your grip above you so that the blade hangs somewhat toward the ground, and take his strike thus on your blade’s flat, to then work with Winding to the next opening.
+
 
 +
<p>From the preceeding, Hanging is to be understood clearly, this you do thusly: When you stand in the Plough and your opponent strikes to you, drive your grip above you so that the blade hangs somewhat toward the ground, and take his strike thus on your blade’s flat, to then work with Winding to the next opening.</p>
 
| '''Hengen.'''
 
| '''Hengen.'''
 
HEngen ist auß dem vorigen klar zuverstehen / das mach also / Wan du im Pflug stehest / und dein widerpart auff dich Hauwet / so fahr mit deinem gefeß ubersich das die Kling etwas gegen der erden hang / unnd empfach damit seinen streich auff deiner Klingen fleche / als denn arbeite mit Winden / der nechste Blösse zu.
 
HEngen ist auß dem vorigen klar zuverstehen / das mach also / Wan du im Pflug stehest / und dein widerpart auff dich Hauwet / so fahr mit deinem gefeß ubersich das die Kling etwas gegen der erden hang / unnd empfach damit seinen streich auff deiner Klingen fleche / als denn arbeite mit Winden / der nechste Blösse zu.
 
 
 
<section end="Hengen"/><section begin="Außreissen"/>
 
<section end="Hengen"/><section begin="Außreissen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Wrenching Out'''
+
| <p>'''Wrenching Out'''</p>
If you bind once from your right, overturn your sword in the bind, and pull out to your left side, so that you both stand close together in the meeting, thus endevour that you can come at him with the pommel from below and wrench over yourself, or you rush him from Above to grapple over the arm with the pommel, or to whatever way the winding wants to happen, then wrench out underneath, that you thereafter come farther to hear more.
+
 
 +
<p>If you bind once from your right, overturn your sword in the bind, and pull out to your left side, so that you both stand close together in the meeting, thus endevour that you can come at him with the pommel from below and wrench over yourself, or you rush him from Above to grapple over the arm with the pommel, or to whatever way the winding wants to happen, then wrench out underneath, that you thereafter come farther to hear more.</p>
 
| '''Außreissen.'''
 
| '''Außreissen.'''
 
BIndestu einem von deiner Rechten / so verkehr im Bandt dein Schwerdt / un reiß gegen deiner Lincken seiten auß / deßgleichen so ihr beide nahe bey samen im Bundt stehet / so befleißdich das du ihm mit dem Knopff von unden zwischen die Arm kom~en köñest / und ubersich außreissen / oder hettestu ihm von Oben mit dem Knopff uber die Arm griffen / oder auff was weg das mag geschehen gewunden / so reiß undersich auß / wie du denn hernach weiter im stuck hören wirst.
 
BIndestu einem von deiner Rechten / so verkehr im Bandt dein Schwerdt / un reiß gegen deiner Lincken seiten auß / deßgleichen so ihr beide nahe bey samen im Bundt stehet / so befleißdich das du ihm mit dem Knopff von unden zwischen die Arm kom~en köñest / und ubersich außreissen / oder hettestu ihm von Oben mit dem Knopff uber die Arm griffen / oder auff was weg das mag geschehen gewunden / so reiß undersich auß / wie du denn hernach weiter im stuck hören wirst.
 
 
 
<section end="Außreissen"/><section begin="Sperren"/>
 
<section end="Außreissen"/><section begin="Sperren"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Blocking'''
+
| <p>'''Blocking'''</p>
Mark when one stands before you in the Changer or Fool’s guard, and cunningly drop with long edge upon his blade, and just as he glides or pulls, cross over your hands, and block him so that he can’t come out, or when he strikes in front of you, drop with crossed hands onto the blade and block him.
+
 
 +
<p>Mark when one stands before you in the Changer or Fool’s guard, and cunningly drop with long edge upon his blade, and just as he glides or pulls, cross over your hands, and block him so that he can’t come out, or when he strikes in front of you, drop with crossed hands onto the blade and block him.</p>
 
| '''[XXIIv] Sperren.'''
 
| '''[XXIIv] Sperren.'''
 
MErck wann einer im Wechsel oder Hut des Olbers für dir stehet / so fall ihm listiglich mit Langen schneid auff sein Kling / unnd in dem es glütscht oder rührt / so verschrenck die Hendt / unnd sperr ihn also das er nit außkommen mag / oder wann er vor dir auff streicht / so fall ihm mit geschrenckten Henden auff die Klingen und sperr ihn.
 
MErck wann einer im Wechsel oder Hut des Olbers für dir stehet / so fall ihm listiglich mit Langen schneid auff sein Kling / unnd in dem es glütscht oder rührt / so verschrenck die Hendt / unnd sperr ihn also das er nit außkommen mag / oder wann er vor dir auff streicht / so fall ihm mit geschrenckten Henden auff die Klingen und sperr ihn.
 
 
 
<section end="Sperren"/><section begin="Verstüllen"/>
 
<section end="Sperren"/><section begin="Verstüllen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Forestalling'''
+
| <p>'''Forestalling'''</p>
Forestalling shall be driven thus: if one comes working unto you with all sorts of actions against the four targets, and strives then to move overhead, drop a cut onto his arm or his sword and let him not come further, especially not where he wants to, thus follow after him with the cut hard on his arm, and forestall thus his advance that he can’t work on, and as soon as you see your opportunity, thrust out with your edge and let fly to the next opening.
+
 
 +
<p>Forestalling shall be driven thus: if one comes working unto you with all sorts of actions against the four targets, and strives then to move overhead, drop a cut onto his arm or his sword and let him not come further, especially not where he wants to, thus follow after him with the cut hard on his arm, and forestall thus his advance that he can’t work on, and as soon as you see your opportunity, thrust out with your edge and let fly to the next opening.</p>
 
| '''Verstüllen.'''
 
| '''Verstüllen.'''
 
DAs verstüllen soltu also treiben / kompt dir einer für der mit allerley arbeyt zu den Vier Blössen behendt arbeitet / und geschwindt solches uber dem Haupt machen will / so fall ihm mit dem schnit auff die Arm oder sein Schwerdt / und laß in nit wider abkommen / sondern wo er hin will / so volg im mit dem Schnit auff seinem Arm hart nach / und verstill im also sein lauff das er nit arbeiten mög / als bald du den dein gelegenheit ersehen / so stoß in mit dem Schnit von dir / und laß zur nechsten Blöß einfliegen.
 
DAs verstüllen soltu also treiben / kompt dir einer für der mit allerley arbeyt zu den Vier Blössen behendt arbeitet / und geschwindt solches uber dem Haupt machen will / so fall ihm mit dem schnit auff die Arm oder sein Schwerdt / und laß in nit wider abkommen / sondern wo er hin will / so volg im mit dem Schnit auff seinem Arm hart nach / und verstill im also sein lauff das er nit arbeiten mög / als bald du den dein gelegenheit ersehen / so stoß in mit dem Schnit von dir / und laß zur nechsten Blöß einfliegen.
 
 
<section end="Verstüllen"/><section begin="Ubergreiffen"/>
 
<section end="Verstüllen"/><section begin="Ubergreiffen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Overgripping'''
+
| <p>'''Overgripping'''</p>
Overgripping is thus: Strike from your right to his upper left opening, however in the strike grip with the fingers out over the cross or hilt while holding the thumb on the haft, then with the left hand raise the pommel and slash in with hanging blade over or behind his displacement to the head.
+
 
 +
<p>Overgripping is thus: Strike from your right to his upper left opening, however in the strike grip with the fingers out over the cross or hilt while holding the thumb on the haft, then with the left hand raise the pommel and slash in with hanging blade over or behind his displacement to the head.</p>
 
| '''Ubergreiffen.'''
 
| '''Ubergreiffen.'''
 
UBergreiffen ist also / Hauw von deiner Rechten zu seiner Obern Lincken Blöß / im Hauw aber greiff mit den Fingern uber das kreuz oder Schilt herauß / jedoch so behalt den Daumen an dem Hefft / unod? mit der Lincken Handt erheb den Knopff / und schlag in mit hangeter Klingen uber oder hinder seiner versatzung auff den Kopff.
 
UBergreiffen ist also / Hauw von deiner Rechten zu seiner Obern Lincken Blöß / im Hauw aber greiff mit den Fingern uber das kreuz oder Schilt herauß / jedoch so behalt den Daumen an dem Hefft / unod? mit der Lincken Handt erheb den Knopff / und schlag in mit hangeter Klingen uber oder hinder seiner versatzung auff den Kopff.
 
 
<section end="Ubergreiffen"/><section begin="Einlauffen"/>
 
<section end="Ubergreiffen"/><section begin="Einlauffen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''Charging In'''
+
| <p>'''Charging In'''</p>
Charging In is nothing other than a charge in under your sword, that both swords come together, beyond this belong grappling and throwing, so that you from here on will attain understanding, will I retain all until now, and now move on to the third section of my list.
+
 
 +
<p>Charging In is nothing other than a charge in under your sword, that both swords come together, beyond this belong grappling and throwing, so that you from here on will attain understanding, will I retain all until now, and now move on to the third section of my list.</p>
 
| '''Einlauffen.'''
 
| '''Einlauffen.'''
 
EInlauffen ist nichts anders denn einem under sein Schwerdt einlauffen / das beide Schwerdt zusamen rühren / Was ferner das Ringen und Werffen belangt / dieweil sich in stucken daß schicket davon verstendig zuhandlen / wil ichs auch biß dahin sparen / unnd jetzt zum dritten theil meines Zedels schreiten.
 
EInlauffen ist nichts anders denn einem under sein Schwerdt einlauffen / das beide Schwerdt zusamen rühren / Was ferner das Ringen und Werffen belangt / dieweil sich in stucken daß schicket davon verstendig zuhandlen / wil ichs auch biß dahin sparen / unnd jetzt zum dritten theil meines Zedels schreiten.
 
<section end="Einlauffen"/>
 
<section end="Einlauffen"/>
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | What the dear reader heard only up until now, on knowing how to engage your opponent with the strikes, moving also through the middle where you will want to come further in the handwork without damage, is meanwhile however not enough without the third, which will be making a good withdrawal. Thus I will give you proper and clear direction in Withdrawing in the following chapter.
+
| class="noline" | <p>What the dear reader heard only up until now, on knowing how to engage your opponent with the strikes, moving also through the middle where you will want to come further in the handwork without damage, is meanwhile however not enough without the third, which will be making a good withdrawal. Thus I will give you proper and clear direction in Withdrawing in the following chapter.</p>
 
| class="noline" | '''[XXIIIr]''' Bißher hastu dun günstiger liber Leser nit allein gehört / auff was weis du mit den Häuwen deinen gegenpart angreiffen / sonder auch durch was mittel du im ferner in der Handtarbeit ohn dein schaden zuckommen mögest / Dieweil aber solches nit genug wo nit zum dritten ein guter abzug gemacht wirt / will ich dir in volgenden Capitel von dem abzichen rechte und klare anleitung geben.
 
| class="noline" | '''[XXIIIr]''' Bißher hastu dun günstiger liber Leser nit allein gehört / auff was weis du mit den Häuwen deinen gegenpart angreiffen / sonder auch durch was mittel du im ferner in der Handtarbeit ohn dein schaden zuckommen mögest / Dieweil aber solches nit genug wo nit zum dritten ein guter abzug gemacht wirt / will ich dir in volgenden Capitel von dem abzichen rechte und klare anleitung geben.
  

Revision as of 20:55, 3 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.