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Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

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<p>Is nothing other than how you let a strike fly in a Sling to your opponent’s head, for this put yourself in the Fool’s guard, and pull your sword back though close to your right, step with your right foot to your opponent while pulling your sword back to you, and sling your strike to his head. This Slinging Strike shall fly out even like a stone is thrown from a sling, whatever more you need note on Slinging you will find described in sections after here.</p>
 
<p>Is nothing other than how you let a strike fly in a Sling to your opponent’s head, for this put yourself in the Fool’s guard, and pull your sword back though close to your right, step with your right foot to your opponent while pulling your sword back to you, and sling your strike to his head. This Slinging Strike shall fly out even like a stone is thrown from a sling, whatever more you need note on Slinging you will find described in sections after here.</p>
| '''Schlaudern.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/58|2|lbl=Ⅰ.19r.2}}
ISt nichts anders dann so du einen Hauw in einem Schlauder dem Mann zum Kopff fliegen last / als schicke dich in die Hut des Olbers / und zeihe dein Schwerdt neben deiner Rechten zuruck durch / trit also in dem du dein Schwerdt zurück zeuchst mit deinem Rechten fuß zu jm / unnd Schlauder ihm deinen Hauw zum Kopff / Dieser Schlauderhauw sol eben daher fliegen wie ein stein auß einer Schlaudern geworffen wirdt / was aber sonst mehr von Schlaudern nötig / findestu in stucken hernach beschrieben.
 
  
 
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<p>Twitching is one very good handwork with which you can masterly mislead your opponent, and which shall be operated thus: After you have bound against your opponent with the long edge or have struck in to an opening, handily twitch over yourself again as if you want to strike to the other side, however don’t drive ahead, but handily execute the strike with the short edge again onto the point, from which you are exited.</p>
 
<p>Twitching is one very good handwork with which you can masterly mislead your opponent, and which shall be operated thus: After you have bound against your opponent with the long edge or have struck in to an opening, handily twitch over yourself again as if you want to strike to the other side, however don’t drive ahead, but handily execute the strike with the short edge again onto the point, from which you are exited.</p>
| '''Zucken.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/58|3|lbl=Ⅰ.19r.3}}
MIt zucken welches ein sehr gut Handtarbeit ist / kanstu deinen gegenfechter meisterlich verführen / welches du also treiben solt / Nach dem du deinen Mann mit Langer schneiden angebunden oder eingehauwen hast / zu einer Blöß / so zuck behend wider ubersich als ob du auff die andere seiten hauwen wollest / fahr aber nit fort / sonder vollendt den Hauw mit kurtzer schneid behendt wider an den ort / von welchem du abgangen bist.
 
  
 
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<p>Is a strike or move made double in this wise: Strike first from your right to his ear, as then when the swords glide together, thrust your sword’s pommel through under your right arm, driving at the same time out with both arms, and hit him with the the short edge behind his blade onto his head. This handwork will therefore be called Doubling, because through it a double or twofold strike will be accomplished, first with long and then with short edge.</p>
 
<p>Is a strike or move made double in this wise: Strike first from your right to his ear, as then when the swords glide together, thrust your sword’s pommel through under your right arm, driving at the same time out with both arms, and hit him with the the short edge behind his blade onto his head. This handwork will therefore be called Doubling, because through it a double or twofold strike will be accomplished, first with long and then with short edge.</p>
| '''Doplieren.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/58|4|lbl=Ⅰ.19r.4}}
ISt ein Hauw oder stuck doppel machen auff diese weiß / Hauwe erstlich von deiner Rechten zu seinem Ohr / als dann wann die Schwerdt zusamen glitschen / stoß dein Schwerdts Knopff under deinem Rechten Arm durch / fahr zugleich mit beiden Armen auff / und schlag ihn mit kurtzer schneiden hinder seiner klingen auff sein Kopff. Diese handtarbeit wirt derowegen Doplieren geheissen / dieweil dardurch ein Hauwe dopelt oder zwifacht volbracht wirt / erstlich mit Langer / denn mit halber schneidt.
 
  
 
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<p>Inverting is: bind onto your opponent’s sword against his left, and just as the pommel moves under your right arm, thrust through, if he at the same time would come at your head in a strike against your right, push your blade or arms from you with crossed hands so as to ward him below you so that he cannot work onward, however make your required space to work.</p>
 
<p>Inverting is: bind onto your opponent’s sword against his left, and just as the pommel moves under your right arm, thrust through, if he at the same time would come at your head in a strike against your right, push your blade or arms from you with crossed hands so as to ward him below you so that he cannot work onward, however make your required space to work.</p>
| '''[XIXv] Verkehren.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/59|1|lbl=Ⅰ.19v.1}}
VErkehren ist / binde deinem widerpart gegen seiner Lincken an sein Schwerdt / unnd stoß in dem es rürt den Knopff under dein rechten Arm durch / entziehe jhm zugleich dein Kopff wol auß dem streich gegen deiner Rechten / truck volgends sein Kling oder Arm mit geschrenckten henden von dir / undersich damit du jhn zwingst das er nit mehr arbeiten kann / machst aber dir blatz nach deinem gefallen zu arbeiten.
 
  
 
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<p>Clipping is two moded, the first is when you, as just now was told, come at him in a flip his arm or blade, thus stopping his blade or arm with quillons stiff under you, and under this let the blade Clip to his head.</p>
 
<p>Clipping is two moded, the first is when you, as just now was told, come at him in a flip his arm or blade, thus stopping his blade or arm with quillons stiff under you, and under this let the blade Clip to his head.</p>
| '''Umbschnappen.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/59|2|lbl=Ⅰ.19v.2}}
UMbschnappen ist zweyerley / das eine / wann du wie jetzt bemelt jhm mit verkeren auff sein Arm oder Klingen kommen / so halt jm sein Klingen oder Arm / mit kreutzstangen steiff under dir / unnd laß under des die klingen umbschnappen seinem Kopff zu.
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>However, the other is where he closes to you with a Loop under him, retreat with the left foot towards his right, and at the same time reach over his right arm with the pommel above, pull back under yourself, and let the sword edge come under his blade to clip against his head, such that your hands come to cross over each other.</p>
 
| <p>However, the other is where he closes to you with a Loop under him, retreat with the left foot towards his right, and at the same time reach over his right arm with the pommel above, pull back under yourself, and let the sword edge come under his blade to clip against his head, such that your hands come to cross over each other.</p>
| Das ander / so er aber dich mit verkeren undersich getrungen hat / so weich jhm mit dem Lincken fuß gegen seiner Rechten / und greiff zugleich mit dem Knopff oben uber sein rechten Arm / ruck den undersich / und laß under seiner Klingen mit kurtzer schneid gegen seinem Kopff herfür umbschnappen / das dir dein hendt kreutzweiß uber einander kommen.  
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/59|3|lbl=Ⅰ.19v.3}}
  
 
|-  
 
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<p>Feinting can be wanted each time, however it will be useful and resorted to properly and in the suitable time which only the advancing fencer knows, thereby you will effect a false strike with advantage, that you seek to attain another from there, and take it soon. When you strike at one opening, and your opponent would displace you, don’t pull the strike but let it flow off nicely, and strike to another opening, as in this example. In advancing come into the right Wrath, and as soon as you can reach him, step and strike at the left ear unto his sword, however in the strike, even and then pull it, thus lift the pommel and let the blade miss and flow off near his left, and twitch over the head, as to then strike him on the other side, out over his right arm to his head.</p>
 
<p>Feinting can be wanted each time, however it will be useful and resorted to properly and in the suitable time which only the advancing fencer knows, thereby you will effect a false strike with advantage, that you seek to attain another from there, and take it soon. When you strike at one opening, and your opponent would displace you, don’t pull the strike but let it flow off nicely, and strike to another opening, as in this example. In advancing come into the right Wrath, and as soon as you can reach him, step and strike at the left ear unto his sword, however in the strike, even and then pull it, thus lift the pommel and let the blade miss and flow off near his left, and twitch over the head, as to then strike him on the other side, out over his right arm to his head.</p>
| '''Fehlen.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/59|4|lbl=Ⅰ.19v.4}}
FEhlen kann ein jeder wol / aber solches mit fug und zu gelegner zeit nützlich zugebrauchen / weis allein ein wolgeübter Fechter / Derowegen wiltu mit vortheil ein Fehlstreich thun / das du ein andern daraus erholen mögest / son nim war. Wann du zu einer Blöß einhauwest / und dir dein widerpart versetzen will / das du den Hauw nit rüren sonder ablauffen last / und hauwest zu einer andern Blös zu / als zu einem exempel. Im zugang komm in rechten Zorn / und als bald du jhn kanst erlangen / so trit und hauwe dem lincken Ohr zu biß an sein Schwerdt / in dem Hauw aber / ehe und denn es rüret / so erhebe den Knopff und laß die kling neben seiner Lincken fehl ablauffen / und zuck umb den kopff / als dann hauwe jm zur andern seiten / aussen uber sein rechten Arm zu seinem Kopff.
 
 
<section begin="Zirckel"/>
 
<section begin="Zirckel"/>
 
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<p>When you stand in the bind before your opponent, and both you and he drive the swords foreward in the air overhead, but neither will give away an opening to the other, then the Circle is an especially good work model at need which you will execute thus: Strike with the half edge and crossed hands from above toward his right side forward through above, so that both your hands stay overhead, but in striking cross your right hand boldly over your left, thereby you will want to reach or graze his right ear with the half edge, the sword thus clips him with your arms under yourself, then step with the right foot to take on his right side or to bring yourself back, and strike a direct splitting strike to his head.</p>
 
<p>When you stand in the bind before your opponent, and both you and he drive the swords foreward in the air overhead, but neither will give away an opening to the other, then the Circle is an especially good work model at need which you will execute thus: Strike with the half edge and crossed hands from above toward his right side forward through above, so that both your hands stay overhead, but in striking cross your right hand boldly over your left, thereby you will want to reach or graze his right ear with the half edge, the sword thus clips him with your arms under yourself, then step with the right foot to take on his right side or to bring yourself back, and strike a direct splitting strike to his head.</p>
| '''[XXrv] Zirckel.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/61|1|lbl=Ⅰ.20v.1}}
WAnn du im Bandt vor dem Mann stehest / unnd beide du und er die Schwerdter uber dem Kopff in den lüfften führen / aber keiner vor dem andern sich Bloß will geben / so ist der Zirckel ein ausbündige sonder gute arbeit zu gebrauchen / welchen soltu also machen / Hauwe mit halber schneid und geschrenckten henden von Oben / neben seiner Rechten seiten für uber durch / das dein beide hendt ob dem Haubt bleiben / im Hauwen aber schrenck dein Rechte hand dapffer uber dein Linkce / damit du jhm das Recht ohr wol mögest mit halber schneid erlangen oder schürpffen / wischt er als dann mit den Armen undersich dem Schwerdt nach / so trit mit dem Rechten fuß wol beseits auff sein Rechte seiten oder hindersich zu ruck / und hauwe ein geraden Scheitelhauw zu seinem kopff.
 
 
<section end="Zirckel"/><section begin="Rinde"/>
 
<section end="Zirckel"/><section begin="Rinde"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>The rounds are two things, Single and Double. The single round is when you twitch off your sword from your opponent’s blade or opening in a swing overhead, and let fly over in the air so that you make a round circle. The double round is this: when you so twitch strongly off from his sword, that it goes over your head two times in full swing overhead, one time to each side, thus both single and double rounds are very serviceable also to Leading On, such that you will see and drive farther onward.</p>
 
<p>The rounds are two things, Single and Double. The single round is when you twitch off your sword from your opponent’s blade or opening in a swing overhead, and let fly over in the air so that you make a round circle. The double round is this: when you so twitch strongly off from his sword, that it goes over your head two times in full swing overhead, one time to each side, thus both single and double rounds are very serviceable also to Leading On, such that you will see and drive farther onward.</p>
| '''Rinde.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/61|2|lbl=Ⅰ.20v.2}}
DEr Rinde seind zweyerley / Einfach und Doppelt / Einfache Rinde ist / wann du dein Schwerdt von deines gegenparts klingen oder Blöß in einem schwung uber dein Kopff abzuckest / und in der lufft last umbfliegen / also das du ein runden Zirckel machest. Doppel Rinde ist diese / wann du also starck von seinem Schwerdt abzuckest / das es zweymal in vollem schwung uber deinem Haubt umblaufft / zu jeder seiten einmal / welche Rind beide Einfach unnd Doppel sehr dienstlich auch zum verführen seind / wie du solches in den stucken weitleuffiger sehen und erfahren wirst.
 
 
<section end="Rinde"/><section begin="Winden"/>
 
<section end="Rinde"/><section begin="Winden"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
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<p>The word Winding is known in good German as Twisting, whose work shall be done thus: when you have bound onto your opponent’s sword from your right against his left, then hold fast in the bind and wind the far part of your blade inward against his head, and then again out. So that you will be told how to always stay stiff onto his sword in the bind, such will be shown in this example.</p>
 
<p>The word Winding is known in good German as Twisting, whose work shall be done thus: when you have bound onto your opponent’s sword from your right against his left, then hold fast in the bind and wind the far part of your blade inward against his head, and then again out. So that you will be told how to always stay stiff onto his sword in the bind, such will be shown in this example.</p>
| '''Winden.'''
+
|  
DAs wörtlein Winden heißt auff gut Teutsch Wenden / welche arbeit soll also gemacht werden / wann du von deiner Rechten an deines widerparts Schwerdt gegen seiner Lincken hast angebunden / so bleib am Bandt fest / und wende jhm das vordertheil deiner klingen einwerdts gegen seinem Kopff / unnd wider heraus / doch das [XXIr] du alweg under des wie bemelt / steiff an seinem Schwerdt mit dem Bandt bleibest / wie solches hie in disem Exempel zusehen.  
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/61|3|lbl=Ⅰ.20v.3|p=1}} [XXIr] du alweg under des wie bemelt / steiff an seinem Schwerdt mit dem Bandt bleibest / wie solches hie in disem Exempel zusehen.  
  
 
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Revision as of 16:11, 5 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 16.16 16.17 16.18 16.19 16.20 16.21 16.22 16.23 16.24 16.25 16.26 16.27 16.28 16.29 16.30 16.31 indes
  17. palm up
  18. Illegible deletion.
  19. oberhauw
  20. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  21. short edge
  22. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  23. short edge
  24. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  25. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  26. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  27. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  28. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  29. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  30. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  31. Word inserted next to the text.
  32. Inserted nest to the text.
  33. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  34. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.