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! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
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! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
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| <p>'''[XLVv]''' Wilt du auch wissen der Meyster kern /<br/>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|1|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.1}}
&emsp;Zu allen stucken recht tretten lern.<br/>
 
Versetzest nit vil / ist desta freyer /<br/>
 
&emsp;Darvor verwarndt dich Joachim Meyer.</p>
 
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| '''Eingang in das dritte Buch.'''
 
Nach dem ich guthertziger Leser bewilliget / disen meinen Fecht zedel welchen ich auß rechtem grunde der Alten zusamen gesetzt / gebessert un in ein rechte ordnung gebracht / hab ich den (damit meniglich dester mehr nutz darauß haben möcht) durch vil schöner und geschwinder stuck und Exempel auch etwas zu erkleren / unnd den zu verstehn ein kleine anleitung geben wollen / dan sie dermassen reich von stucken / un aller hand geschwindigkeit / also das wo du sie nach solcher anleitung erwigest / jhe lenger ihe mehr stuck hierauß erlernen wirst können / dan das die Reimen ohn außlegung nicht vil nutzen / ist offenbar an andern außgangenen Fechtbüchlein / und solt aber wissen das der erste theil solcher Reimen in meinem bishergelehrten Fechten gnugsam erklärt / derwegen an disem meinen anhab nemen / also.  
 
 
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| '''Sword Fencing'''
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| <p>'''Sword Fencing'''</p>
  
Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.
+
<p>Firstly will each one of the actions in Fencing be divided into three parts which are particularly good to note. In the Sword this is namely attacking, followed by the withdrawal or other than to the first to reach it, send your attacks through the Guards and Hew like they follow afterwards here, however to the other parts and the middle work, this will be reprinted with the handworks, and a mixture of convenient cuts. Onwards to the last, or the withdrawal, how orderly each one will hereafter be diligently written and taught.</p>
 
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| Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.
+
| <p>Secondly one should note the Vor and Nach (Before and After), Weak and Strong. The Before is when you drive with your Stücken so that he cannot come to his senses, especially by positioning yourself close, and how he defends before your Stücken and these same would like to break and bar, with this, he runs off the Vor to you.</p>
 
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| The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.
+
| <p>The after is, when you have been rushed upon by your opponent how it is reported next and above. Thus you should respond Indes quickly with convenient work, with this, you are strongest on his Stücken, when you lay on with your work in the Vor, and in this you are crowded so that you must displace him after, thus is a constant changing with the Vor and Nach, now you have it, then he does, But he who does not pay attention to it, he will nonetheless never learn to fence.</p>
 
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| '''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''
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| <p>'''Divisions of the sword to the Weak and Strong'''</p>
  
The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.
+
<p>The Sword is firstly divided in two parts, namely from the grip to the middle of the Blade which is known as the Strong, from the middle to the most forward, is the Weak furthermore is the sword divided in four parts how the figure below this shows.</p>
 
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| With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.
+
| <p>With the inward part, that is the haft, and [with it] the work with the pommel and cross and haft will be understood, in the next part, thereafter will the work with cutting and pushing and what belongs to the Strong be understood, to the third part of the sword should be noted the alterable work of the Weak and Strong after opportunity and liking. Which alone is extremely weak for you to work properly to the Openings.</p>
 
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| '''Hard and Soft'''
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| <p>'''Hard and Soft'''</p>
  
Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.
+
<p>Thus you shall mark in the binding of the swords, as you shall feel if he has become hard or soft in the bind, with the cut.</p>
 
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| Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.
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| <p>Item If he is yet again, strong or weak, and is usually more watchful of the weak binding before the strong, how hereafter in the fencing it can be seen. With this however the Sword fencing and the following written stuck is more understandable thus as I explain my Zedel according to the rules, as I want the words to have understanding so I have named the order; the Beginning, Middle and End.</p>
 
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| '''Follow the Sword Zedel'''
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| <p>'''Follow the Sword Zedel'''</p>
  
'''The Four Main guards'''
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<p>'''The Four Main guards'''</p>
  
From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow
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<p>From the Roof, Fool, Ox, Plow</p>
 
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| '''The Eight Secondary Guards'''
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| <p>'''The Eight Secondary Guards'''</p>
  
Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard
+
<p>Long-point, Iron-door, Hanging Point, Speak-window, Key, Side Guard, Barrier Guard, Wrath Guard</p>
 
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| '''The Five Master-Cuts'''
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| <p>'''The Five Master-Cuts'''</p>
  
Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper
+
<p>Wrath Cut, Crooked cut, Thwart Cut, Squinter cut, Scalper</p>
 
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| '''The Six Covert Cuts'''
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| <p>'''The Six Covert Cuts'''</p>
  
Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut
+
<p>Blinding cut, Bouncing cut, Short cut, Knuckle cut, Clashing cut, Wind cut</p>
 
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| '''Handworks in the Sword'''
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| <p>'''Handworks in the Sword'''</p>
  
Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing
+
<p>Bind On, Remain, Cut, Strike Around, Travel After, Snap Around, Run Off, Doubling, Leading, Flying, Feeling, Circle, Looping, Winding, Winding Through, Reverse, Change Through, Run over, Set Off, Cut Off, Pull, Hand Press, Displace, Hanging, Blocking, Barring, Travel out, Grab over, Weak pushing</p>
 
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| '''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''
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| <p>'''From the Four Openings and Divisions'''</p>
  
Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.
+
<p>Firstly will the opponent be divided in two sections, namely left and Right, how the Lines in the figure above is shown, thereafter in two more divisions namely under and over, the above two openings would be the Ox, to divide the under two, the Plow.</p>
 
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| Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:
+
| <p>Whose use should one should thus firstly note, in which division he leads his sword under or above, to the right or the Left/ when you have seen that, thus attack against him at once from above, it is about the location, otherwise, take a general example of this:</p>
 
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| In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.
+
| <p>In Zufechten, thus both of you have come together, and you see that he leads his sword to his right in the high opening, in Ox or Wrath-guard, thus attack in to his lower left opening, if not, then it is much more important that you provoke him to meet you. As soon as this clashes, or will, thus pull around your head and strike him high to the opening from which he came. This is namely to his right ear, with the half edge and crossed hands. This is the correct Squinter cut.</p>
 
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| '''Another'''
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| <p>'''Another'''</p>
  
Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.
+
<p>Thus when one holds his Sword to the left in Zufechten, then go through before him from your right and hew with strength to his right, as soon as he swipes after to the strike thus pull a looping to the left opening, if he swipes after this, however, thus allow it to fly around again, thus drive each opening to the other, crosswise and against one another after your opportunity.</p>
 
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| It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.
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| <p>It is every fencer's [desire] that he quickly knows from all strikes, to which opening the cut is coming, Indes quickly there and follow after, if I however can decide, then I want to instruct about the displacing upwards in hanging.</p>
 
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| It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.
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| <p>It is stated in the ancient Verses, who often displaces, will often be injured.</p>
 
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| '''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.
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| <p>'''Item''' Liechtenauer said in his secret verses, that displacing hurts you, if you wish it on yourself, therefore shall every fencer know that he is to be the first with attacking and following, then to every fencer that is known to watch and wait on another, from this he shall come to no harm, or at the least, if he does not fight much.</p>
 
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| A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.
+
| <p>A proper fencer, who does not displace much, will have the greatest advantage. Thus, when he strikes you also strike, when he thrusts you also thrust, when he steps you also step. Where two equal strikes come together, thus they bring you to displacing, when however one will cut from above, and then next he goes against with a Thwart, thus he sets off, and steps with one another, thus simultaneously should one have a step out, with the same cut and therein with advantage also pay attention to his openings. Thus should every fencer know that he is soon attentive how it is also shown above, that where two good fencers have come together, which I have attentively married together in the illustrations.</p>
 
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| Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.
+
| <p>Thus have I put forth a short and summary knowledge of sword-fighting and all noteworthy devices and also the translations of which the divisions that are obscured, are clarified in measure and thereafter it enters and then next goes in three divisions, namely how it was previously reported, Onset or Attacking, Pressing After or the middle work, the last is to Withdraw or end and therefore so that one may better understand I will shortly reiterate.</p>
 
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| Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.
+
| <p>Thus, to the attacks have I put forth the Guards in which one should not delay, or wait in them, but rather as a result must your necessary courage with whose reported cuts, go once or twice to your opportunity, so that he must then engage and that the Vor has escaped Him, thus to another opening should one work after with various offensive handworks, beholding with the Vor, as such handworks are stated above as a three in one handwork, thus to crowd and close so that one may come to the withdraw without shame.</p>
 
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| '''Of this, I will give an example'''
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| <p>'''Of this, I will give an example'''</p>
  
If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.
+
<p>If one fights against you in the Guard of the Roof, thus you come in Zufechten into the Side Guard, you must above all not wait in that long, then when he bears witness to the strike and as soon as he brings his sword into the air, thus lay on against him with a Thwart strike, instantly as it clashes, thus cut quickly again around with the long Thwart, to the other side of his sword, that is now attacking, if he strikes around, thus you cut after, if he displaces, then deceive him with the weak, so that you cut him in the after.</p>
 
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| If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut
+
| <p>If he is hard thus you are soft<br/>If he cuts, so you counter,<br/>If he displaces, then you cut</p>
  
Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.
+
<p>Thirdly; also have instant attention for your opportunity to Withdraw.</p>
 
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| '''See that you are the first on the field;<br/>Before your opponent adopts a posture, lay on against him.'''
+
| <p>See that you are the first on the field;<br/>Before your opponent adopts a posture, lay on against him.</p>
  
Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.
+
<p>Thus note that when you wish to fight with someone, then see that you are the first to be in place so that you can act in a timely manner in your intended Stück, then you shall forcefully continue against him with cuts that he cannot send himself into a guard or Stück But rather you shall show that you will rush over him with sudden stepping before he realizes it. How it is then further clarified by the following Rhyme.</p>
| '''Shauw das der erst seist auff dem plan /<br/>Ehe er sich Legert greiff ihn an.'''
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|2|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.2}}
 
Das ist / wann du mit einem Fechten wilt / so schauw das du der erst bey ihm seyest auff dem blatz / damit du dich in deim fürgenomene stuck bey zeyt schicken mögest / als dann soltu mit Häuwen und in triten dermassen anhalten / das er nit zeit oder Blatz möge haben sich in ein Leger oder stuck zuschicken nach seinem gefallen / unnd solt in also ehe und denn ers gewar wirt mit verborgenen tritten ubereilen / wie du denn solches in nachfolgenden Reimen / wie es zuwegen zubringen gnugsam kanst abnemen.
 
 
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| '''Pay heed to Instantly, understand me rightly,<br/>Hit him before he adopts his posture.'''
+
| <p>Pay heed to Instantly, understand me rightly,<br/>Hit him before he adopts his posture.</p>
  
This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.
+
<p>This is when you are in the Zufechten and he is just about to you, then note when he acts as if he will adopt a posture, then do not allow him to rest or come to it, but rather always attack first, and as he is choosing a posture, lay on at once to the next opening, and position yourself as if you would to cut strongly, but do not do this, rather allow it to fail or flit to another opening, then as soon as you are at the midway part of your sword on his Sword, do not await, but rather, Thwart, Strike Around, Wrench Out, Slice, Wind, and what other types of work there may be.</p>
| '''In des hab acht / versteh mich recht /<br/>Ihn Triff ehe er sein Leger schlecht.'''
+
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+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/111|3|lbl=Ⅰ.45v.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/112|1|lbl=Ⅰ.46r.1|p=1}}
Solches solt du also verstehn / wenn du im zufechten bist / so hab acht wann er sich stelt als wöll er sich Legern / '''[XLVIr]''' so laß in nit Ruhen oder dazu komen / sondern ficht immer furt vor im durch / in dem er aber seines Legers wil acht und war nemen / so greiff ahn / stracks der nechsten Blös zu / und stelle dich als ob du starck hauwen wollest / laß aber fehl gahn / oder verfliegen / und greiff zu einer andern Blöß an / als bald du dann mit deiner klingen zum halben theil darinen / oder an sein Schwerdt komen bist / so feyre nit / sonder Zwirch oder schlag umb / oder reiss aus / oder Schneid / oder Windt / oder threib was für arbeit dir mögen am füglichsten zu handen komen.
 
 
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword G.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''For you no guard will come so good<br/>In the after you strike out freely, boldly'''
+
| <p>For you no guard will come so good<br/>In the after you strike out freely, boldly</p>
  
But it makes you wonder, as such, how can there be still many good Guards, and hence, you yourself have seen taught here many good techniques, answer, it is true, there are many good Guards and will be fought from a number of good and beautiful techniques. As I have included several in this book for you. However this rhyme teaches you that it is always better to not settle into a guard. It guards you not at all, to show someone with your guard, what you will do amid the fight, that may your cutting through not be brought so far.  
+
<p>But it makes you wonder, as such, how can there be still many good Guards, and hence, you yourself have seen taught here many good techniques, answer, it is true, there are many good Guards and will be fought from a number of good and beautiful techniques. As I have included several in this book for you. However this rhyme teaches you that it is always better to not settle into a guard. It guards you not at all, to show someone with your guard, what you will do amid the fight, that may your cutting through not be brought so far.</p>
  
In this, learn from the rhyme, when you should do it. Namely in the After that is when you should take him, when he keeps his guard, or stays in a guard, then cut him to the opposite opening, as soon as he goes towards your strike with his displacing, and is out of his Guard, and whether it connects or doesn’t connect, then pull around your head and strike, especially to the part or quarter Line from where he has struck from.
+
<p>In this, learn from the rhyme, when you should do it. Namely in the After that is when you should take him, when he keeps his guard, or stays in a guard, then cut him to the opposite opening, as soon as he goes towards your strike with his displacing, and is out of his Guard, and whether it connects or doesn’t connect, then pull around your head and strike, especially to the part or quarter Line from where he has struck from.</p>
  
'''Of this I will give to you an example'''
+
<p>Of this I will give to you an example:</p>
  
When one stands before you in the right Wrath guard in the Zufechten, as soon as you note that he will remain in the Wrath guard, thus cut through to him, still that you are not too close, and in cutting through, allow your sword to fly around in the air, so that you would come into the right Ochs, but before you complete this, or when you have sent this gesture, then step quickly, before he will properly defend, and cut to his left, from under so that your hands remain high, with this you force him, that he must leave his guard to displace, or with a step back, cut in at the same time as you, as soon as the swords connect, pull around the head and cut with crossed hands to his right ear with a Schielhau, in an arc, to where his departure has made him open, how the Figure shows, it is a lofty attack or onset, in which you should take great heed to the steps, and the body should well follow the cuts.
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<p>When one stands before you in the right Wrath guard in the Zufechten, as soon as you note that he will remain in the Wrath guard, thus cut through to him, still that you are not too close, and in cutting through, allow your sword to fly around in the air, so that you would come into the right Ochs, but before you complete this, or when you have sent this gesture, then step quickly, before he will properly defend, and cut to his left, from under so that your hands remain high, with this you force him, that he must leave his guard to displace, or with a step back, cut in at the same time as you, as soon as the swords connect, pull around the head and cut with crossed hands to his right ear with a Schielhau, in an arc, to where his departure has made him open, how the Figure shows, it is a lofty attack or onset, in which you should take great heed to the steps, and the body should well follow the cuts.</p>
  
When you threaten to cut to a place, then you can readily deceive him, therefore in such attacks you must take the ground, as it were, and in your approach act as if you would step small and tight and before he is aware step broadly forth to the attack, allow yourself at first to be seen taking large steps, in this he takes notice, and will meet you quickly in earnest, to get there before you, thus withhold your step and do it moderately, so that he is otherwise in this you take your advantage, and as soon as you see it, that you are quickly at him again with broad stepping.
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<p>When you threaten to cut to a place, then you can readily deceive him, therefore in such attacks you must take the ground, as it were, and in your approach act as if you would step small and tight and before he is aware step broadly forth to the attack, allow yourself at first to be seen taking large steps, in this he takes notice, and will meet you quickly in earnest, to get there before you, thus withhold your step and do it moderately, so that he is otherwise in this you take your advantage, and as soon as you see it, that you are quickly at him again with broad stepping.</p>
| '''Für dich kein Leger kompt so gut /<br/>Im Nach jhn triffst aus freyem muth.'''
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Hie möchte einer fragen wie solches zuverstehn / dieweil sovil guter Leger seindt / unnd auch hin unnd wider vil stuck aus denselbigen angezeigt und gelehrt worden / hierauff solt du mercken ob schon vil guter Leger seind / und auch schöne und gute stuck aus etlichen Legern gefochten werden können / wie jhr denn etlich auch hierin angezeigt und begriffen / so lehrest du doch aus disen Reimen / das allweg besser sey es Leger sich einer gar nit / sintemal aus den Legern leichtlich dein gegenmann kann abnehmen / was für stuck du zufechten im sinn habest / welches aber aus den häuwen nit mag also vermerckt werden / uber das lernestu hieraus wie du (wenn einer vor dir in einem Leger stehet) jhn treffen oder zur Blös komen solt / welches alles durch das Nach mag zuwegen bracht werden / das versteh also / Wenn dein gegenfechter in einem Leger stehet / so hauw gegen uber zur andern Blös / als bald er (dein hauw zuversetzen) aus seinem Leger gehet / so zuck ehe es recht rührt (oder welches besser gar nit rührt) umb den Kopff / und schlag eben zu disem theil oder quatier hinein / von welchem er dir zubegegnen abgangen / aber auff das solches noch desto leichter sey / will ich dir des ein Exempel setzen / Nemlich so bald du im zufechten merckest das er sich in die Zornhut legert / so hauw von deiner Lincken gegen deiner Rechten vor jm durch / doch das du jm nit so nach seiest / im durchhauwen aber laß dein Schwerdt in der lufft umbschiessen / sam du aus dem rechten Ochssen stechen wollest / ehe du aber solches recht zeigest / und mit geberden dich dazu schickest / so trit in eil / und hauw von Unden zu seiner Lincken ein / das deine hend hoch bleiben / damit zwingestu jn das er dir eintweder auß seinem Leger versetzen / oder mit einem abtrit zugleich einhauwen muß / hauwet er denn / so merck als bald die Schwerdter zusamen rühren / so zuck umb den Kopff / und hauw in einem schwung mit geschrecnkten henden die kurtz schneid zu seinem rechten ohr '''[XLVIIr]''' ein / wie diese Figur außseiset / in disem angreiffen oder Fechten / welches gar ein lustig stuck ist / soltu der trit gar wol warnemen / und den leib den häuwen nach wol mit gehen lassen / wann du in einem ort truwest zuschlagen / denn dardurch kanstu ein gar bald verführen / must derowegen in solchem angreiffen jhm das erdtrich abstehlen / und im zugang dich stellen als trettest du nahe und enge trit / ehe erß denn gewar wirt / so trittest du weit zum angreiffen / hergegen laß dich anfencklichen mit grossen tritten mercken / so es denn dein widerpart acht nimpt / und will dir mit ernst begegnen in eil dir vor zukommen / so verhalt als denn dein trit und thu gemach / biß er sich vergebens verzabelt / in dem nimstu deines vortheils war / so bald du dein vorthel ersihest / so bistu in eil mit weiten triten bei jm.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/112|2|lbl=Ⅰ.46r.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|1|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.1|p=1}}
 
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| '''The cuts you send powerfully from your body<br/>To the four openings carry out your work'''
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| <p>The cuts you send powerfully from your body<br/>To the four openings carry out your work</p>
  
In this rhyme two things are realized, firstly, to the cutting secondly, to the four openings of the Man, to which the cuts will be cut, and note that you cut all cuts with outstretched arms, and with this reach far to the man, also as soon as a cut from one side fails, thus you should quickly cut to the opposite side.
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<p>In this rhyme two things are realized, firstly, to the cutting secondly, to the four openings of the Man, to which the cuts will be cut, and note that you cut all cuts with outstretched arms, and with this reach far to the man, also as soon as a cut from one side fails, thus you should quickly cut to the opposite side.</p>
| '''Die Häuw führ gewaltig von dem leib /<br/>Zu den vier Blös dein arbeit threib.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|2|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.2}}
In disen Reimen wirt gelehrt wie du deine häuw gewaltig unnd lang / zu allen vier enden das ist zu allen vier Blössen frey fliegent / sampt dem Leib welchen du wol mit wie oben gemelt nehmen / führen solt.
 
 
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| '''Item''' If however you step up and are going strong, thus cut quickly around to the other side, also when you will cut to an opening, thus note that as soon as he goes to displace your cut, thus do not allow them to connect, (where it is useful to you) but rather pull free your sword and let it fly around again and strike to another opening, reach far from you with the cuts, and you must step correctly with this, thus fine changing and changing through on the shield comes to you, and so you won’t be harmed see that you cut to the body and not to the sword, from the Second part of this rhyme the verses teach this, also I will write further of this in 38 rhymes, and still more of the same.
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| <p>'''Item''' If however you step up and are going strong, thus cut quickly around to the other side, also when you will cut to an opening, thus note that as soon as he goes to displace your cut, thus do not allow them to connect, (where it is useful to you) but rather pull free your sword and let it fly around again and strike to another opening, reach far from you with the cuts, and you must step correctly with this, thus fine changing and changing through on the shield comes to you, and so you won’t be harmed see that you cut to the body and not to the sword, from the Second part of this rhyme the verses teach this, also I will write further of this in 38 rhymes, and still more of the same.</p>
 
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Line 2,042: Line 2,028:
 
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| '''When you Krumphau go up quickly<br/>Throw the point with crossed hands'''
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| <p>When you Krumphau go up quickly<br/>Throw the point with crossed hands</p>
  
Note the Crooked cuts are many, and that all cuts that are done with hands put crosswise or crossed, will be known as Crooked cuts.
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<p>Note the Crooked cuts are many, and that all cuts that are done with hands put crosswise or crossed, will be known as Crooked cuts.</p>
  
Hence the one, Schieler is also counted among the Crooked Cuts and it applies equally to the long or short edges, thus it is a Krumphau when you hold your hands crosswise.
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<p>Hence the one, Schieler is also counted among the Crooked Cuts and it applies equally to the long or short edges, thus it is a Krumphau when you hold your hands crosswise.</p>
| '''So du Krumphauwst far auff behendt /<br/>Geschrenckt / den ort wirff auff die hendt.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|3|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.3}}
Die Krumphäuw werden auff mancherley art gefochten / denn alle Häuw so mit geschrenckten oder gekreutzigten henden gehauwen / werden Krumphäuw genent / daher denn auch der eine Schieler zun Krumphäuwen gezelt wirt / es gilt auch gleich sie geschehen mit halber oder gantzer schneid / wann du die hend kreutzweiß fürest.
 
 
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| And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.
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| <p>And firstly when one will cut straight to your head, from his right, thus step with your right foot well out from his strike, to his left, so that you avoid his strike with a spring to his left and likewise cut from your right with crossed hands, against his cut, thus you come with your blade between his head and sword, on his short edge, which is facing him, and when it connects, then step further around to his left side with your right foot, and displace or transfer your sword's blade from his, onto his arm, between his head and sword, in this you will have seen the opening, to which the you may cut and see that you don't wait long but rather allow your cuts to fly quickly to the openings.</p>
| Erstlichen aber merck wann dir einer von seiner Rechten von Oben stracks zum Kopff hauwet / so trit mit dem Rechten fuß / wol auß seinem streich auff sein Lincke / das du seinen streich in einem sprung auff seine lincke seiten erwischest / und Hauw mit geschrenckten henden von deiner Rechten gegen seinem Hauw / so komstu mit deiner Schwerdts klingen zwischen sein Haupt und Schwerdt auff sein halbe schneid / die dann gegen jhm stehet / in dem es rührt / so trit fürbaß mit deinem Rechten gegen seiner Lincken seiten umb unnd versetz / oder transferier mit deiner klingen von seiner klingen / zwischen seinem Kopff und Schwerdt auff sein Arm / truck also mit geschrenckten henden in einem ruck sein Arm undersich / under disen wirstu gewißlich ein Blöß finden zu welcher du hauwe
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/114|4|lbl=Ⅰ.47r.4|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/115|1|lbl=Ⅰ.47v.1|p=1}}
 
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Revision as of 22:27, 20 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.